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中国保证开放金融市场(附经济贸易协议全文)

作者:看中国记者文龙综合报导 — 已发布 2020-01-15 19:50, 上次修改时间: 2020-01-18 00:03
贡献者:天涯(责任编辑)
来源:看中国新闻网
美国东部时间1月15日13:05分左右,美国总统川普(特朗普)与中国国务院副总理刘鹤在白宫签署第一阶段贸易协议。郭亚夫肯定了这一协议的金融服务部分是“全方位开放”,但他说,未来对协议的落实还会是“磕磕碰碰”的,而他认为“磕磕碰碰”的主要领域将是“银行和保险业”这两个利益最大、主要由国企拥有的领域,“大的利益在哪里,冲突估计就在哪里。”他说。 一位美国的中国问题专家在纽约说,美中虽然达成了“第一阶段”贸易协议,但两国关系在2020年会继续恶化,并对地区和世界产生全方位重大影响。
中国保证开放金融市场(附经济贸易协议全文)

美中双方在白宫签署贸易协议。图为川普2019年10月会见刘鹤。(图片来源:Win McNamee/Getty Images)

美中双方在白宫签署贸易协议。图为川普2019年10月会见刘鹤。(图片来源:Win McNamee/Getty Images)

中美贸易协议一签,中国国内就有拿刘鹤比晚清重臣李鸿章之议:“丧权辱国!”。习近平对这点应是料到了,要不为什么不去出席这一在川普眼中的“历史性协议”,在他眼中可能是“城下之盟”,而让刘鹤去签,至少显得川普屈就。

这一协议有两条比较耀眼表面看很矛盾:第一,中方承诺增购两千亿美元货物。第二,美国继续维持对3600亿美元中国输美产品的关税。中国有一种不满的舆论,既然中方答应这么多条件,购买这么多货物,还要承受美国这么高的惩罚性关税,而且一直要承受到第二阶段谈判达成协议为止。更为甚者,川普在白宫签署协议前做了一个小时的讲话,其中就有一句明说美国为什么维持对华关税,“我不能丢掉手中的牌”,显然有预防中国变卦的意思。

谁输谁赢

而且这个长达九十几页的文本,有几十个使用“中国应”如何如何,或者“中国同意”做什么什么,“美国应”出现不到5次,另外还有一些“双方应”。给人感觉美国居高临下,要求中国如何如何的意思。这么几个因素加起来,表面看,似乎说是城下之盟也不为过。

习近平为什么吞下惩罚性关税?问题并不那么简单。先来看看一些对中美双方签署第一阶段协议得失、谁输输赢评论。‘北京之春’荣誉主编胡平认为:“谁赢了,谁输了?当然是美国赢了。道理很简单,美国发动贸易战,就是以加征关税为手段向中国政府施加压力,促使中国在相关方面做出改变。如果中国拒绝任何改变,美国就输了。如果中国做出了改变,美国就可以说是赢了。中国小改,美国小赢,中国大改,美国大赢”。在北京的前中共总书记赵紫阳秘书鲍彤则认为说中国输了,说美国输了都不对。“生意总是要做的。协议是绝对必要的。如果中美无贸易,世界将会怎样?有第一阶段,才可能有第二阶段。必须前进!必须坚持中美友好!”

还有一种观点认为这一协议对中国人民有好处。原北京天则经济研究所所长盛洪对美国之音表示,美中签订协议,实际上是纠正了过去中国对美贸易的不平等。他认为,美国迫使中国结构性改革对中国人民有好处。比如国有企业,在中国国内都不平等,国有企业有免费的土地,有大量贷款,民营企业是没有的,这些事不平等,美国推着中国政府改革国有企业,不要让他有那么多特权,难道不是对中国人民有好处吗?开放网际网络难道不是对中国人民有好处吗,结构性改革实际上只是对中国的利益集团不利而已。

中国官媒则是有备而来,协议一出,重点放在强调双赢上面,新华社报导否认中国为签署协议做出了重大让步,强调协议彰显了中美经贸合作互利共赢的本质,官媒引述专家评论着意强调“双方”应如何如何,忽略文本中大量出现的“中国应”如何如何。其实,中美贸易战就是因为美国认为中国不遵守承诺,不遵守世贸协议,不正当竞争而打起来的,在协议中强调中方应遵守知识产权,应该不要强迫性技术转移等等,也很正常。

习近平在争取时间

去年五月份中美几乎快要达成协议了,在最后关头,习近平悔棋,导致一场更大的贸易战爆发,那么,这次,在美国在维持关税问题上拒不松口、习近平为什么还要冒着会在国内被指“丧权辱国”的背景下接受第一阶段协议呢?

根据多方的分析,第一协议的签订美中双方都有短期性的考虑,在美国,川普要度过选举关,让他的基本盘喘息;在中国,习近平不能再承受川普加税,中国的经济寒冬不能再持续下去,还有棘手的香港问题,这也是近日中共高层会议上说要“稳定外部环境”的意思。由于这一短期性的考虑,川普把当初要求中国进行的一些关键性改革,诸如网络盗窃,终结补贴,国企改革等敏感问题放到第二阶段去谈,在第一阶段协议里,原则性地触及到知识产权与技术转移等问题,川普是要等到选举结束,腾出手来再来与中方解决更复杂的问题。

另据‘华尔街日报’报导,去年12月,参与美方谈判的川普女婿库什纳提醒前来摸底的中国驻美大使崔天凯,不要胶着于关税的问题,要考虑如果达不成协议的话,川普就会在12月15日下令对另外1560亿美元中国输美产品加征新关税。据此,中方清楚了只要不把减免关税作为先决条件,川普现在也不会强逼中方取消补贴和改革国有企业,虽然是城下之盟,但让中方争取到了时间。

第二阶段谈判涉及网络盗窃,国企补贴,实际是要中共放权,将触及到中国的经济制度问题,谈判起来将非常艰难,不少分析认为将遥遥无期,有些分析甚至认为第一阶段协议就是终局。

有分析指习近平政权的算盘大约就是如此,出点血,多买点美国货,但是不要动摇我的权力基础。另外一方面,川普有选举考虑,习没有这种担忧,川普有任期,习可当终身主席,往后拖,以时间换空间。第一阶段贸易协议签署后,官媒报导时对于川普盼望很快开启对第二阶段谈判,连一个字都不提。

第一阶段贸易协议谈判漫长难产,第二阶段贸易协议至少也会同样坎坷且前景难料。

 

 

美中两国1月15日签署第一阶段经贸协议之后,美国贸易代表办公室说:“第一阶段协议解决了一系列贸易和投资壁垒”,“这些壁垒抑制了在中国市场上提供或寻求金融服务的美国公司的竞争力。”

美国贸易代表办公室说,第一阶段协议金融服务的成果主要有8个方面:

证券服务:到2020年4月1日中国将取消外国证券公司的股权上限,扩大美国独资证券服务供应商的机会。中国还将确保美国供应商能够不受歧视地进入中国市场,包括在审查和批准合格许可申请方面。

保险服务:到2020年4月1日,中国将取消对美国寿险、健康险和养老保险服务供应商的外资股权上限。此外,中国将取消所有保险服务部门的所有歧视性监管要求和程序,并将快速审查和批准提供保险服务的许可申请。

电子支付服务:中国拥有不断增长的电子支付服务市场,多年来不对外国公司开放,其中包括世界领先的美国信用卡和借记卡公司。未来中国将确保其监管机构为美国电子支付服务供应商提供改善的和及时的许可流程,以便利其进入中国市场。

基金(资产)管理服务:到2020年4月1日,中国将取消对基金管理公司的外资股权上限,从而扩大美国独资基金管理服务供应商的机会。中国还将确保美国供应商能够无歧视地进入中国市场,包括在审查和批准合格许可申请方面。

银行服务:中国将扩大包括银行分行在内的美国金融机构提供证券投资基金托管服务的机会,在美国金融机构寻求许可时,中国应考虑其全球资产。在评估中国债券市场(全球第三大公司债券市场)的公司债券A类主承销服务的许可证申请时,中国也将考虑美国公司的国际资格。

信用评级服务:中国将消除美国信用评级服务供应商所面临的壁垒,包括批准美国独资供应商的申请,并允许他们对出售给国内和国际投资者的所有种类的国内债券进行评级。中国还将允许美国公司收购其与中国公司现有合资企业的多数股权。

期货服务:到2020年4月1日,中国将取消期货公司的外资股权上限,扩大美国独资的期货服务供应商的机会。中国还将确保美国供应商能够无歧视地进入中国市场,包括在审查和批准合格许可申请方面。

不良债务服务:具有处理不良债务专业知识的美国金融服务供应商有机从获得省级许可证开始,直接从中资银行购并不良贷款,从而扩展其在中国的服务。当中国恢复发行新的国家许可证时,确保以非歧视方式授予美国金融服务供应商。

路透社周三说,中国保证开放金融市场以吸引更多外国竞争已有多年了。中国之前表示这一协议将增加进口美国金融服务。

根据协议,中国承诺未来两年增购总值约2000亿美元的美国商品,其中金融产品350亿美元。

路透社说,协议中关键的承诺是4月1日前取消外国公司在中国的证券、基金管理、期货和保险业的外资股权限制,但中国观察家认为这部分在金融服务中规模较小。

本月中国已经取消了对期货公司外国所有权的限制。中国去年表示,将在2020年4月1日前对基金管理采取通过措施。本月,中国还取消了外资在人寿保险合资企业拥有51%股权的上限。

美中第一阶段协议可能会让中国的证券公司在4月1日前取消对外国所有权的限制

纽约天骄基金管理公司总裁、投资专家郭亚夫告诉美国之音,外资在突破上限后如何从大股东变成全资在协议中仍是比较模糊的。

郭亚夫表示,协议中银行部分仅承诺了可以从事证券投资基金托管服务和债券市场,没有提到储蓄部分,“储蓄是最大的奶酪,”他说。

郭亚夫肯定了这一协议的金融服务部分是“全方位开放”,但他说,未来对协议的落实还会是“磕磕碰碰”的,而他认为“磕磕碰碰”的主要领域将是“银行和保险业”这两个利益最大、主要由国企拥有的领域,“大的利益在哪里,冲突估计就在哪里。”他说。

华尔街日报说,美国和中国签署了一项具有里程碑意义的协议,“将大幅增加美国对华的商品和服务销售,并通过更好保护在华企业的知识产权和进一步开放中国市场(尤其是金融服务业)帮助在华经营的公司。”

纽约数据驱动咨询公司Multivariate的管理合伙人(Managing Partner)马克斯・沃尔夫(Max Wolff)形容美中第一阶段协议是“把10个美丽的花瓶打碎了,然后把其中一只重新粘合起来。”虽然他表示,美中贸易关系仍未达到2年前的水平,“但是我们在朝着正确的方向前进。”

 

 

白宫前顾问史蒂夫・班农(Steve Bannon)表示,美国总统川普(特朗普)在美中贸易战中采取的强硬立场已经获得回报,美国以一小步打败了中共。

前川普首席战略家兼长期中国评论家班农在接受CNBC采访时表示,川普采取强硬姿态,通过加征关税打败了中共。

班农说:“这只是第一阶段的协议,但从协议带领的方向而言,这件事情很强大。”

川普总统和中国国务院副总理刘鹤周三在白宫签署第一阶段的美中贸易协议。美国贸易代表办公室公布第一阶段的协议英文版本,总共有8个章节、96页。8章节依序为知识产权、技术转让、农业、金融服务、货币、扩大贸易、争端解决,以及最终条款。

美方将削减中国商品部分关税,而中方承诺将购买更多美国产品,以及进行一些改革;而协议生效的30个工作日内,中方须优先处理保护知识产权的行动计划。

RealClearPolitics引述班农的言论称,重要的是,美国成功让欧盟、日本和美国就中国的国有工业进行讨论。

他说:“在地缘战略的背景下,你看到川普在追赶中共,试图成为欧亚大陆的霸主。”“这就是习近平没有前来签署协议的原因,这就是为什么中共官媒没有在讨论这件事情。”“川普坚持不懈,改变了整个局势的重心。”

班农与中国鹰派、海曼资本管理公司(Hayman Capital Management)创始人凯尔.巴斯(Kyle Bass)一起出现在CNBC的节目访谈上。班农说:“可以说,我们(美国)几乎没有失去什么。”

巴斯则说,他认为随着第一阶段协议签署,现在美中是“暂时休战”,美国比中国占了更多优势。他还说,贸易协议在政治上为双方争取了更多时间保持对话。

巴斯补充说,在这场贸易战中,中国“付出”比较多。

财政部长史蒂芬・姆钦(Steven Mnuchin)也告诉CNBC,“第二阶段”贸易谈判将进一步减低关税。

“第一阶段协议已经削减部分关税,在第二阶段中会更进一步削减。”姆钦补充说:“我们之前已经说过,第二阶段可能可以再细分为不同的阶段。我们将拭目以待。”

姆钦透露:“第一阶段实际上是集中在执行机制上,但这给了中国很大的动力,让他们回到谈判桌前,同意就其它尚待解决的问题进行对话。”

川普在签署仪式上致辞时表示,美中迈出了重大的一步——这是美国与中国从未有过的一步。美中迈向了公平和互惠贸易的未来,双方签署了历史性性的第一阶段贸易协议。“我们在一起,将纠正过去的错误,为美国工人,农民和家庭创造经济正义和安全的未来。”

副总统彭斯则说,川普总统在上任的初期就说过,(美国)经济投降的时代已经结束。总统对我们的中国朋友说,情况必须改变。感谢在总统的领导下,今天的变革开始了。

 

 

1月15日上午,美国总统川普和刘鹤在白宫东厅(East Room)签署美中第一阶段贸易协议。川普说,这是迈出重大的,历史性的一步。川普表示,该协议是纠正过去的错误。川普再次称习近平是他的好朋友,川普还说,他和习近平建立了令人难以置信的关系。

彭斯副总统又提到古老的中国谚语:“人见眼前,天见久远。”彭斯说,今天是让美国人民和中国人民,以及世界走向更加繁荣的光明未来的开始。

以下是全文翻译第一部分:

REMARKS
讲话

Remarks by President Trump at Signing of the U.S.-China Phase One Trade Agreement
川普总统在签署中美第一阶段贸易协定时的致辞

ECONOMY & JOBS
经济与工作

Issued on: January 15, 2020
发布日期:2020年1月15日

East Room
(白宫)东厅

11:51 A.M. EST
美东时间:上午11:51

PRESIDENT TRUMP: Thank you very much. Please. We greatly appreciate your joining us at this White House event. This is a very important and remarkable occasion.
川普总统:非常感谢。请。我们非常感谢你们参加我们的白宫活动。这是一个非常重要和非凡的场合。

Today, we take a momentous step — one that has never been taken before with China — toward a future of fair and reciprocal trade, as we sign phase one of the historic trade deal between the United States and China. Together, we are righting the wrongs of the past and delivering a future of economic justice and security for American workers, farmers, and families.
今天,我们迈出重大的一步-这是与中国从未有过的一步-迈向了公平和互惠贸易的未来-我们签署了中美之间历史性贸易协议的第一阶段。我们在一起,将纠正过去的错误,为美国工人,农民和家庭创造经济正义和安全的未来。

I want to thank President Xi, who is watching as we speak — and I’ll be going over to China in the not-too-distant future to reciprocate — but I want to thank President Xi, a very, very good friend of mine. We’ve — we’re representing different countries. He’s representing China. I’m representing the U.S. But we’ve developed an incredible relationship. But I want to thank him for his cooperation and partnership throughout this very complex process. Our negotiations were tough, honest, open, and respectful — leading us to this really incredible breakthrough. Most people thought this could never happen. It should have happened 25 years ago, by the way. But that’s okay.
我要感谢习近平主席,此时,他也在看我们的致辞-我将在不远的将来前往中国访问中国-但我要感谢习近平主席,我的一个非常非常好的朋友。我们-代表不同的国家。他代表中国。我代表美国,但我们建立了令人难以置信的关系。但是,我要感谢他在这个非常复杂的过程中的合作与伙伴关系。我们的谈判是艰难,诚实,开放和尊重的,这使我们取得了这一令人难以置信的突破。大多数人认为这永远不会发生。顺便说一句,这本应该在25年前完成的。但是没关系。

A man who also has become a good friend of mine and somebody who’s very, very talented and very capable, we’re delighted to be joined by Vice Premier Liu He, Ambassador Cui, and many other representatives from the People’s Republic of China.
一个人也成为我的好朋友,他是一个非常,非常有才干和非常有能力的人,我们很愉快能与中国国务院副总理刘鹤,崔大使和其他许多从中国来的代表一起加入。

We are especially proud of the efforts of Vice President Mike Pence, who is with us. And, Mike, I’d like to have you say a few words, please.
我们为与我们在一起的副总统迈克·彭斯的努力而感到特别自豪。迈克,我想请你说几句话。

VICE PRESIDENT PENCE: Thank you, Mr. President. It’s an honor to be here with you, with Vice Premier Liu He, with our Treasury Secretary, with Ambassador Lighthizer, and with so many distinguished guests, members of Congress, and governors from around the country. This is a good day for America, China, and the world. And it’s an honor to be with you.
彭斯副总统:谢谢总统先生。很荣幸能与您在这里,与(中国)副总理刘鹤,与我们的财政部长,与莱特希泽大使,以及来自全国各地的众多杰出贵宾们,国会议员们和州长们在一起。对于美国,中国和世界来说,今天是美好的一天。与您在一起很荣幸。

Early in this administration, you made it clear that the era of economic surrender was over. And you took a strong stand for American jobs and American workers. You said to our friends in China that things had to change. And thanks to your leadership, today the change begins. (Applause.)
在本届政府任职初期,您明确表示,经济投降的时代已经结束。您在美国的工作(机会)和美国工人中有坚定的立场。您对我们在中国的朋友说,情况必须改变。感谢在您的领导下,今天的变革开始了。(掌声。)

Thanks to your efforts, Mr. President, we announced today great progress on protecting intellectual property, on preventing forced technology transfer and currency manipulation. And I know it means so much to you — the greatest impact may well be on American agriculture. Some $40- to $50 billion in purchases secured in this deal that will result in greater prosperity for farmers all across the land.
感谢您的努力,总统先生,我们今天宣布了在保护知识产权,防止强迫技术转让和操纵货币方面的巨大进步。我知道这对您意义重大-最大的影响很可能是对美国农业的影响。通过这笔交易获得了大约400亿至500亿美元的购买资金,这将为全美农民带来更大的繁荣。

And, Mr. President, your commitment to a growing and prosperous America has been the centerpiece of your leadership. And today, with the signing of phase one, it’s one more example of your commitment to put American jobs and American workers first. And we recognize, as you do, Mr. President, that differences will remain between our two nations. But today is the start of a new chapter in trade relation between the two largest economies in the world.
总统先生,您发展和繁荣美国的承诺一直是您领导地位的核心。今天,随着第一阶段协议的签署,这是您致力于将美国工作和美国工人放在首位的又一个例子。总统先生,我们也像您一样认识到,我们两国(美中)之间仍将存在分歧。但是今天是世界上两个最大的经济体之间贸易关系新篇章的开始。

But I can assure the American people that this President will continue to stand firm and put America first, even as we forge a more productive relationship with China and with the world.
但是我可以向美国人民保证,即使我们与中国以及与世界建立起更加富有成效的关系,这位总统也将继续坚定地把美国放在首位。

Mr. President, you know there’s an ancient Chinese proverb that says, “Men see only the present, but Heaven sees the future.” So let today be the beginning of a brighter future, more prosperous for the American people, the Chinese people, and the world. Thank you, Mr. President. (Applause.)
总统先生,您知道有一句古老的中国谚语说:“人见眼前,天见久远。”因此,让今天成为美中两国人民,以及世界走向更加繁荣的光明未来的开始。谢谢总统先生。(掌声。)

PRESIDENT TRUMP: Thank you, Mike. An incredible job. Incredible guy.
川普总统:谢谢你,迈克。一项了不起的工作。不可思议的家伙。

I also want to give special thanks to our U.S. Trade Representative, who’s been kept very busy. (Laughter.) He’s doing a lot of deals. We’ll have another big one next week. It should get approved very shortly, and that’ll be tremendous, with Canada and Mexico. But we’ll talk about that next week.
我还要特别感谢我们美国的贸易代表,他一直非常忙碌。(笑声。)他正在谈很多协议。下周我们还会再有一个大的(协议)。它应该很快会获得批准,这对加拿大和墨西哥来说将是巨大的。但是我们下周再谈。

But Robert Lighthizer — are we keeping you busy enough? Huh? Poor guy can’t sleep. He tosses and turns. What happened to him?
但是罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)–我们是否让您足够忙?可怜的人无法入睡。他辗转反侧。他发生了什么事情?

AMBASSADOR LIGHTHIZER: Here. I’m sorry. That was dropped. And —
莱特希泽大使:在这里。对不起。(纸张)掉地上了。

PRESIDENT TRUMP: Oh, okay. Thanks.
川普总统:好的。谢谢。

AMBASSADOR LIGHTHIZER: I’m all purpose. (Laughter.)
莱特希泽大使:我是故意的。(笑声。)

PRESIDENT TRUMP: Mike. Mike. Mike said — that’s right, you are all-purpose, come to think. (Laughter.)
川普总统:迈克。迈克说-没错,你是万能的,想来如此。(笑声。)

But Bob Lighthizer is really an outstanding guy. He gets along with people. He’s smart, he’s sharp. And he understands trade better than anybody. When I first took this, I said, “I got to get the best guy.” And all signs pointed to Robert Lighthizer. So thank you very much, Bob. Thank you very much. (Applause.)
但是罗伯特·莱特希泽确实是一个杰出的人。他与人相处融洽。他很聪明,很敏锐。而且他比任何人都更了解贸易。当我第一次参与此事时,我说:“我必须找到最好的人。“所有的迹象都指向罗伯特.莱特希泽。非常感谢你,鲍勃。非常感谢你。(掌声。)

I have one question: Was this an easier job or a tougher job than you thought?
我有一个问题:这工作比你想像的要容易还是更难?  

AMBASSADOR LIGHTHIZER: It was tougher than I thought. (Laughter.)
莱特希泽大使:它比我想像的要难。(笑声。)

PRESIDENT TRUMP: I had a feeling you might say that. Also, our great Treasury Secretary, Steven Mnuchin, has worked with Bob hand in hand. And thank you very much, Steve. Great job. (Applause.)
总统先生:我有一种感觉,你可能会这么说。同样,我们伟大的财政部长史蒂芬·姆努钦(Steven Mnuchin)与鲍勃携手合作。非常感谢你,史蒂芬。做得好。(掌声。)

So this really is a landmark agreement. But along with them, we had the exceptional efforts of Jared Kushner. Where is Jared? Where is Jared? (Applause.) Our brilliant Jared. Great job, Jared. He worked hard. He left a beautiful, nice, very prosperous real estate business, and came here. And, I can tell you, that was harder. This is harder than real estate in New York, isn’t it, Jared? Right?
因此,这确实是一个具有里程碑意义的协议。除了有他们,我们有贾里德·库什纳的不懈努力。贾里德在那里?贾里德在那里?(鼓掌)我们聪明的贾里德·库什纳。他努力工作。他离开了一家美丽,好的,非常繁荣的房地产生意,来到这里。而且,我可以告诉你,这更难。这比纽约的房地产更难,不是吗,贾里德?对吗?

MR. KUSHNER: A lot harder.
库什纳先生:难多了。

PRESIDENT TRUMP: But you’ve done a fantastic job. You don’t get people like that. So thank you very much. And, Ivanka, nice to have you here. Thank you, honey.
总统先生:但是你做得很棒。他(库什纳)是一个难得的人。非常感谢你。而且,伊万卡,很高兴你在这里。谢谢亲爱的。

Also somebody that I’ve heard for 35 years. His voice is just — a great gentleman, a friend of mine, but a great gentleman. We brought him in and he has been outstanding. The only problem is he doesn’t like going on television very much. He’s a little bit shy about that. Larry Kudlow. Where’s Larry? (Applause.) Where is Larry?
还有一个我已经听说了35年的人。他的声音是–一位伟大的绅士,我的朋友,但是一位伟大的绅士。我们把他带进来,他一直很出色。唯一的问题是他不太喜欢上电视。他对此有些害羞。拉里.库德洛(Larry Kudlow)。拉里在那里?(掌声)拉里在那里?

We had a day where the market went down $1 trillion. Think of that. In other words, it was one of those few days, because we’ve had 141 days where we hit all-time highs. And we just broke — as you know, we just broke the 29,000 mark on the Dow, just now, as we were walking in. The market is up substantially today. (Applause.) We have all these business leaders. I’m sure they don’t care.
我们有一天股票市场下跌了1万亿美元。想想看。换句话说,那就是那种倒霉的一天,因为我们有141天都达到了历史最高点。而且我们刚刚突破–正如你所知,道指刚刚突破29,000点,就在我们正在进来的时候。今天市场大涨 (掌声)。所有这些商业领袖都在。我肯定他们不在乎。

But Larry Kudlow went out into the beautiful lawns of the White House. Actually, he was standing in the middle of the Rose Garden. He had a beautiful scarf waving in the wind. He was everything perfect, right out of Greenwich, Connecticut. (Laughter.) And he started talking. And by the time he finished, I said, “You just made a trillion dollars. A trillion.” (Laughter.) Because the market went up like 250 points. I said, “Larry, what the hell did you say?” (Laughter.) And it didn’t matter. But we were even. We went from being a trillion down to even, and that was pretty good.
但是,拉里.库德洛(Larry Kudlow)走进了白宫美丽的草坪。实际上,他站在玫瑰花园的中间。他有一条漂亮的围巾在风中飘扬。他一切都很完美,在康涅狄格州格林威治市。 (笑声)他开始讲话。当他说完这些时,我说:“你刚刚赚了1万亿美元。一万亿。”(笑声)。因为股市上涨了250点。我说:“拉里,你到底在说什么?”(笑声)。没关系。但是我们不赔不赚。我们从一万亿减少到了不赔不赚,那还不错。

Larry, you’ve been fantastic. Thank you very much. Appreciate it. (Applause.)
拉里,你真棒。非常感谢你。我感激你。(掌声。)

And, by the way, I just see in the audience our great Ambassador to China, right? Governor. So we had the governor of Iowa, and he loves China. And he’s the long- — you’re the longest-serving governor in the history of our country. Like 24 years. And I called him. I said, “Governor, you have to do me a favor.” Because I remember one conversation I had with him. I was going in to make a speech, before the election, and he said, “Sir, please don’t say anything bad about China.” It’s the first time anyone ever said that to me. (Laughter.) And I said, “Who is this guy?” He’s the governor of Iowa. He just said, “Don’t say bad about China.” So I had to rip up about half of my speech, right? (Laughter.)
而且,顺便说一下,我刚刚在观众席上看到我们伟大的驻华大使,对吗?州长。因此,我们有了爱荷华州州长,他爱中国。而且他是长期-你是我国历史上当州长时间最长的。大约24年。我打电话给他。我说:“州长,你必须帮我一个忙。”因为我记得与他的一次谈话。在选举之前,我正要发表演讲,他说:“先生,请不要说中国任何不好的话。”这是有史以​​来第一次有人对我说这句话。(众笑)我说:“这人是谁?”他是爱荷华州州长。他只是说:“不要说中国不好。”所以我不得不剪掉大约一半的我的演讲,对吧?(笑声。)

And I said, “Why?” And he said, “Well, we do a lot of business. I’ve been dealing with China for 35 years, with corn and all of the different things.” And he told me a story that was amazing. He said, “You know, 35 years ago, when I started, I met a man named Xi. He wasn’t President then; he was a young man.” And the governor came back. He told his wife, he said — this is 35 years ago. And it’s documented. He said, “I just met the future President of China.”
我说:“为什么?”他说:“嗯,我们做很多生意。我与中国做生意已有35年了,涉及玉米和各种不同的东西。”他告诉我一个令人惊讶的故事。他说:“您知道,三十五年前,刚开始的时候,我遇到了一个名叫习近平的人。那时他不是总统。他还是个年轻人。”州长回来了。他说,他告诉妻子-这是35年前。这是记录在案的。他说:“我刚刚遇到的人,将会是中国未来的主席。”

And nobody thought much about it. And you know what? Twenty-eight years later, you turned out to be right. And you have been an incredible ambassador. And they like each other so much. So when it came time to picking the important position of ambassador, I said, “Haven’t you had enough after 24 years being governor of Iowa?” He said, “If you want me to do that.” And it’s been a great — you’ve been a great help. Thank you very much, Ambassador. (Applause.) I appreciate it. Done a great job. Nobody could have done that job better.
而且没有人对此想太多。你知道吗?二十八年后,证明你说准了。你是一位不可思议的大使。他们(和习近平)彼此非常喜欢。因此,当需要选择大使的重要职位时,我说:“担任爱荷华州州长24年后,你还不够吗?”他说,“如果你要我这样做,那就太好了。”-你提供了很大的帮助。非常感谢大使(掌声)我很感激。干得好。没有人能做得更好。

A man — I think I can go on the opposite side of the spectrum, perhaps, from the governor. His attitude is a little different. Our trade advisor, Peter Navarro. (Laughter.) Right, Peter? He’s a little different. We have all types. We have all types.
一个人-我想我也许会和州长背道而驰。他的态度有些不同。我们的贸易顾问彼得·纳瓦罗(笑声)对,彼得?他有一点不同。我们有所有类型。我们有所有类型。

A Deputy Chief of Staff, Chris Liddell, who’s been with us for a long time, and he’s done a fantastic job and had a great business career.
副参谋长克里斯·里德尔与我们在一起已经有很长时间了,他做得非常出色,并且拥有出色的商业职业生涯。

Commerce Secretary — a legend on Wall Street — Wilbur Ross. (Applause.) Where’s Wilbur? Thank you. Wilbur, thank you.
商务部长-华尔街的传奇人物-威尔伯.罗斯。(掌声)威伯在哪里?谢谢。威尔伯,谢谢。

A man who knows agriculture as well as anybody in the world. We were looking for an agricultural person, and we wanted to go political, and we were looking for somebody that would fit perfectly. And Sonny came in, and it was over. I learned more in that half hour about agriculture than I — Joni, right? — than I could ever have learned, possibly. Sonny Perdue has been incredible. And we’re taking care of our farmers — that, I can tell you. (Applause.) So, Sonny, thank you very much. Great job. Thank you. Thank you, Sonny.
一个了解农业不比世界上任何人差的人。我们正在寻找一个管理农业的人。政治上也要合适。我们正在寻找一个完全合适的人。桑尼来了,就是他了。在那半小时里,我学到的农业知识比我以前所有学到的可能都多得多-乔尼,对吗?桑尼.珀杜(Sonny Perdue)真是令人难以置信。而且我们正在照料我们的农民-我可以告诉你。 (鼓掌)所以,桑尼,非常感谢。做得好。谢谢。谢谢你,桑尼。

And a woman — transportation is going very well. She’s done an incredible job. We’re getting approvals down now from 20 years — 21 years to 2 years. And it may get rejected for environmental or other reasons. But we have it, Lindsey, down to about two years. A highway which would have taken 19 to 20 years to get approval, we have it down to 2. And we want to get it down to one. And if it doesn’t work, we’re going to say, “You don’t build it.” But you’re not going to wait 22 years to find out you can’t build the highway.
还有一位女士-交通进展顺利。她做得非常出色。现在,我们的审批时间从20年-从21年降低到2年。而且它可能由于环境或其它原因而被拒绝。但是,我们将它减少到两年的时间。高速公路需要19到20年才能获得批准,我们将其降低到2年。并且我们希望将其降低到1年。如果不能建造,我们将说:“你不能建造。”但是你不用等待22年后,才发现你不能建造高速公路。

And she has been fantastic: Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao. (Applause.) Thank you, Elaine. Thank you, Elaine.
她非常了不起:交通运输局局长赵小兰。(掌声)谢谢,伊莱恩。谢谢,赵小兰。

So we have tremendous numbers of people here, and I’m saying, “Do I introduce them?” But I think I sort of should because what the hell. This is a big celebration. And, by the way, some of the congressmen may have a vote, and I don’t — it’s on the impeachment hoax. So, if you want, you go out and vote. (Laughter.) I’d rather have (inaudible) — it’s not going to matter, because it’s gone very well. (Laughter.) But I’d rather have you voting than sitting here, listening to me introduce you, okay? (Laughter.)
因此,我们这里有很多人,我是说:“我介绍他们吗?”但是我想我应该这样做,天哪,因为这是一次盛大的庆祝活动。而且,顺便说一下,有些议员可能要去投票,而我不用去投票,就是弹劾骗局(投票)。因此,如果你愿意,你可以出去投票。(笑声)我宁愿(听不清)-没关系,因为一切进展顺利。(众笑。)但是,我宁愿你去投票而不是坐在这里听我介绍你,好吗?(笑声。)

They have a hoax going on over there. Let’s take care of it. So, if any of you guys want to leave, we will not be — where is Kevin McCarthy? The great Kevin McCarthy.
他们那边有个骗局在进行中。让我们来搞定此事。因此,如果你们中的任何一个想要离开,我们不离开。凯文·麦卡锡在哪里?伟大的凯文·麦卡锡。

AUDIENCE MEMBER: (Inaudible.)
听众:(听不清。)

PRESIDENT TRUMP: Okay, good. I’m glad. (Laughter.) Can I be honest? (Laughter.) I’m glad. I like it much better that way. And, by — the House folks, 195 to nothing. And we got three Democrats, and one of them actually left the Democratic Party, came over Republican. And what a job you’ve done. So I just want to thank you all. Really tough. I love that.
川普总统:好的,很好。我很高兴。(笑声)我可以诚实些吗?(笑声)我很高兴。这样我会更好。而且,众议院议员195投票反对弹劾。我们得到了三个民主党人,其中一个实际上离开了民主党,来到了共和党。你做得好。所以我只想感谢大家。真的很难。我喜欢如此。

So we have some incredible people in the audience, and I’d just like to introduce a few — a very good friend of mine — two very good friends of mine: Sheldon Adelson, Miriam Adelson. Thank you very much, both, for coming. They’ve been tremendous supporters of us — (applause) — and the Republican Party. And they’re great people.
因此,我们的观众中有一些不可思议的人,我只想介绍几个人-我的一个很好的朋友-我的两个非常好的朋友:谢尔顿.阿德尔森,米莉亚姆.阿德尔森。非常感谢你们两人的光临。他们一直是我们和共和党的大力支持者。(鼓掌)他们是伟大的人。

 

 

美国财长姆努钦(Steven Mnuchin)1月15日对CNBC表示,第一阶段贸易协议实际上是集中在执行机制上,但这给了中国很大的动力,让他们回到谈判桌前,同意尚待解决的其它问题。

但第一阶段贸易协议也有望降低在中国开展业务的美国公司的结构性壁垒。具体来说,该贸易协议解决了美国公司高管们的担忧,他们长期以来一直抱怨说,他们经常被迫共享关键技术以换取市场准入。

尽管北京当局对此否认,但美国公司表示,它们经常被迫通过合资等手段来分享商业秘密,这种做法再加上北京当局补贴中国企业的政策,可以让美国公司无法与中国企业竞争。

姆努钦说,在过去的两年中,美中之间最棘手的问题之一,就是有关强迫技术转让和知识产权遭侵犯的问题,应该在第一阶段的贸易协议中予以纠正。

姆努钦1月14日表示,在达成美中第二阶段贸易协议之前,美国将维持对中国商品的关税。

姆努钦对媒体表示,如果两国很快达成第二阶段协议,川普总统可能会考虑削减关税。“如果很快就进入第二阶段,他可能考虑将削减关税作为第二阶段的一部分”。

美国财政部长姆努钦和贸易代表莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)早些时候表示,未与中国就进一步削减关税达成协议。在联合声明中他们称,于15日公布与中国达成的第一阶段贸易协议所有方面的细节,唯一不公开的部分是包含中国采购美国产品和服务细节的机密附件。

美中双方在2019年12月13日达成第一阶段贸易协议后,美国同意暂缓原定于2019年12月15日生效的对1,600亿美元输美中国商品加征的关税,其中包括手机、笔记本电脑和其他商品,并将现有对1,200亿美元中国商品加征的关税减半至7.5%,但维持对2,500亿美元其他中国商品加征25%的关税。

 

 

1月15日,中美双方按照此前约定在美国签署第一阶段贸易协议,虽然美国财政部将取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定,但是分析师认为人民币仍将走贬。

中国国务院副总理刘鹤已经抵达美国,按照约定将在美国总统川普见证下,两国签署第一阶段贸易协议。

川普日前推文称,双方将于15日在白宫举行签署仪式;而中国商务部则是上周才证实,刘鹤将于13至15日访问华盛顿,与美方签署第一阶段贸易协议。中方代表团成员则包括中国商务部部长钟山、中国央行行长易纲、国家发改委副主任宁吉喆、财政部副部长廖岷、外交部副部长郑泽光、工信部副部长王志军、农业部副部长韩俊以及商务部副部长王受文。

受此消息影响,人民币兑美元即期汇率14日收盘续升并创五个半月新高,盘中一度升破6.87元触及逾半年高位;中间价亦劲升309点至近五个半月高点。交易员称,在中美即将签署第一阶段贸易协议之际,美国取消对中国汇率操纵国标签,进一步提振市场人气,不过午后获利盘离场人民币升幅收窄,随着贸易协议细节不断公布,人民币升势料放缓。

因为在贸易协议中,美国可能要求中国购买大量商品。据消息人士透露,中国承诺未来两年增加购买近800亿美元美国产品,并再购买逾500亿美元能源商品。这会对结售汇形成新的压力,人民币连续升值的动力可能不足。

据《路透社》14日报道,一外资行交易员称,“前面涨的太快了,超买的比较严重,后面马上签协议了,有止盈离场也很正常。”

另一中资行交易员表示,人民币技术目标位在6.87附近,空头平仓或者出来买美元的比较多。

“从国际收支的角度看,很难看好人民币,” 德商银行驻新加坡经济学家周浩最新报告称,中美第一阶段协议透露的情况看,中国可能会购买更多的美国产品,这意味着中国的贸易顺差将收窄,这可能导致人民币贬值,近期人民币反弹的持续性令人怀疑。

花旗银行报告则认为,即将签署的第一阶段协议以及接下来的第二阶段协议谈判,可能会引发人民币新一轮升值预期,并将吸引更多资金流入。不过中美之间在结构性问题上仍然存在不确定性,另外经济增长稳定的持续性还有待观察,对人民币整体保持谨慎。

另外,人民币汇率的升势也受美国财政部报告的影响。

美国财政部13日公布了半年度汇率政策报告,取消对中国“汇率操纵国”的认定。

报告称,作为美中第一阶段贸易协议的一部分,中国已做出“可执行的承诺,避免竞争性贬值”,并同意公布汇率和外部收支的相关数据。

报告指出,人民币在9月初贬值至1美元兑7.18元人民币后,在10月升值,目前汇率约为1美元兑6.93元人民币。

报告称:“在这种情况下,财政部已决定,目前不应再将中国列为汇率操纵国。”

美国不再将中国列为汇率操纵国,但还是将中国留在观察名单上,美国财政部需要关注9个国家,这些国家包括中国、德国、爱尔兰、日本、马来西亚、新加坡、瑞士和越南。

福克斯电视台13日援引中方知情人称,中国希望在签署贸易协议前被从货币操纵国清单中移除。

近两年来,世界上最大两个经济体一直在互相加征关税。川普(特朗普)尤其不满美国对中国的巨额贸易逆差,称中国利用人民币贬值来刺激出口,弥补关税的损失。

第一阶段贸易协议的条款将于双方签署后公布。白宫贸易顾问纳瓦罗13日接受美国国家公共电台采访时表示,协议内容远超农产品采购,还包括知识产权、强制技术转让、中国国企不公平竞争和汇率操纵等。

纳瓦罗表示,美国贸易代表莱特希泽有90天对中国的执行情况进行裁定,“如果他认为这个问题没有得到妥善解决,我们有权做出相应的回应,而中国承诺不会报复。”

 

 

路透社和法新社对经济学家所做的调查显示,中国经济增长已经进入30年来最慢的阶段。

路透社周二(1月14日)表示,83位接受调查经济学家预测的中国GDP今年增长幅度的中位数是5.9%。这将是中国经济增速从1990年以来的30年中的最低水平。2019年中国经济增速可能是6.1%。

路透社说,导致中国经济增速放缓的主要原因是中国国内外需求疲软和美中贸易战的不确定性。虽然双方即将签署第一阶段贸易协议,但中国国家主导的经济模式问题依然存在,它将成为双边经贸摩擦的主要来源。

接受法新社调查的14家机构分析师预测,2019年中国经济全年增速为6.1%,明显低于2018年的6.6%。这将是中国30年来最低的经济增速,不过还处于中国官方设定的6%至6.5%的目标区间。

分析师们对中国去年第四季度的增长预测是6%,与第三季度持平。

英国牛津经济研究院资深经济学家汤米・吴认为,中国正在发生经济结构变化,从制造业转向服务业和高附加值的产业,经济增速放慢也属正常。

法新社引述汤米・吴的话说:“中国经济增长逐步放慢是正常的,它最终会走向可长期持续增长的模式。”

汤米・吴认为,影响中国经济增长的因素不光是美中贸易战,还有政府的刺激措施。中国当局指望通过减税刺激需求,推动经济增长的效果与增加基础设施投资等其它措施相比并不明显。

路透社说,中国方面有消息说,北京今年确定的经济增长目标为6%左右,低于去年确定的6%到6.5%目标。

摩根史丹利首席中国经济学家邢自强(Robin Xing)上周在北京的一个会议上表示,政策支持今年还会继续,但效果会更加明显,因为贸易方面的风险有所下降。

邢自强说,北京今年会再次增加预算赤字,提高发行地方政府特别债券的配额。

路透社说,分析师们都认为,中国央行今年还会下调银行准备金率。他们预测,中国一年期基准贷款利率,也就是新的贷款利率,将会进一步下调。

根据路透进行的这次调查,经济学家们认为,到2020年年底,中国央行将会把存款准备金率再下调100个基点(bps)。中央银行在元旦宣布降息50个基点。这是央行自2018年初以来的第八次降息。

 

 

近年来中国金融风险高企,官方不断发声表示要守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线,银行的金融风险爆发,重组后再上市的方式或转嫁风险给资本市场,令投资者买单。

随着中国经济放缓,金融系统的风险爆发。2019年5月24日,中国央行与银保监会发布信息:包商银行出现严重信用风险,决定自2019年5月24日起对包商银行实行接管,实行接管期限一年。

2019年5月29日,上海报业集团旗下的《财联社》发表题为“监管人士:部分农商行、城商行处于技术型破产边缘”的报道。报道引述金融监管人士的消息称,“中国部分农村及城市商业银行,因面临严重的信用风险,处于技术破产的边缘。这类金融机构恐将按照市场化原则清退。”

相关消息引发外界关注,多家媒体相继转载上述报道,但报道很快遭到官方的封锁、删除。

1月13日,中国银保监会召开新闻发布会称,确实有个别的中小机构现在风险还比较高,而且有的风险因为多种原因正在暴露;对于这类高风险机构,除了常规手段外,监管层也采取了一些主动出击的措施。

中国银保监会新闻发言人肖远企在新闻发布上表示,除了接管包商银行,对恒丰银行、锦州银行进行风险处置和改革重组外,监管层还对其他机构采取了处置不良资产、引进新的战略投资者、通过市场化法治化手段兼并重组等方式。

“对于中小机构的风险,今年我们同样会采取综合手段,但是根据每家机构的不同情况,因机构而采取分类措施进行化解。”他说。

官媒《新华社》1月12日的报道引述恒丰银行董事长陈颖的话说,恒丰银行完成了改革重组,“争取5年内上市”。

公开资料显示,恒丰银行总部设在山东济南,是一家股份制银行。2017年,恒丰银行发生高管违法、股权混乱、流动性紧张的问题后,作为消除这家全国性股份制银行风险隐患的一部分,恒丰银行进行了改革重组。

去年早些时候,由于中国经济增长放缓,中国央行除了罕见地宣布接管包商银行,还对恒丰银行进行了救助,引发了人们对中国数百家小型银行真实财政状况的担忧。

恒丰银行是中国12家股份商业银行之一,在中国拥有18家分行和306家支行,也是山东唯一的全国性股份制商业银行。恒丰银行资产超过1万亿元(人民币,下同),在3家出现问题的银行当中,总资产规模最大达到1.2万亿元,负债9,739亿元。恒丰银行前董事长姜喜运因犯有贪污罪、受贿罪等罪行在上个月被烟台中级法院判处死刑,缓期两年执行。

另外,包商银行资产处置出现新进展。两位消息人士对《路透社》透露,徽商银行拟出资不超过36亿元人民币,参与发起新设一家省级地方商业银行,并承接包商银行在北京、上海、成都、宁波的四家异地分行。

《看中国》特约评论员唐新元认为,银行重组后再上市的处置方式,很可能转嫁金融风险给资本市场,令投资者买单。去年中国实施市场化债转股规模为1.4万亿元,这也是转嫁金融风险的一种方式,实际上金融风险并未消失。

财经观察人士秦伟平认为,包商银行、锦州银行和恒丰银行不过是倒下的第一张多米诺骨牌。随着2020中国经济的进一步下滑和中国内债外债突破350万亿的历史高点,偿债期的到来,越来越多的企业陷入债务违约而破产,越来越多的金融机构陷入流动性危机。

中国的金融风险越来越大,引起各界关注。2019年12月28日,第二届中国金融安全论坛在北京举行。论坛对近年来中国金融安全情况进行了剖析,认为中国金融市场风险震荡上行,宏观金融风险波动较大,风险水平依旧偏高。中国社会科学院财经战略研究院院长何德旭认为,持续加大的经济下行压力对金融产生较大的影响,要明确当前阶段防范系统性金融风险的关键点与主要任务。

 

 

1月15日,中国央行通过货币工具再次释放4,000亿人民币,这是继6日降准释放8,000亿后的又一大动作。分析指,除了为稳定中国新年前流动性,也为地方债的发行提供支持。

中国央行15日公告称,为对冲税期高峰、现金投放等因素的影响,维护银行体系流动性合理充裕,开展3,000亿元中期借贷便利(MLF)操作和1,000亿元14天期逆回购操作。

1年期MLF中标利率3.25%,14天期逆回购中标利率2.65%,均与上次持平。15日无MLF到期,也无逆回购到期,实现净投放4,000亿元(人民币,下同)。

1月15日,银行间市场除1年期限利率有所下行,其它期限利率均有所上行。上海银行间同业拆放利率(Shibor)显示,隔夜和7天利率分别为2.654%、2.717%,较上一个交易日上行13.6个和6.3个基点;14天利率为3.013%,较上一个交易日上行27.8个基点;一年期利率为3.012%,较上一个交易日下行0.1个基点。

中信证券首席固收分析师明明表示,中国央行降准后连续多日暂停流动性投放,中国新年现金需求增大、地方债发行缴款、年初缴税缴准等因素叠加,近期流动性缺口有所显化。此次开展的MLF能够补充中长期流动性,14天逆回购操作则可助资金跨节。

值得一提的是,上次央行开展逆回购的时间还是2019年12月24日,此后连续15个交易日未开展逆回购操作。这意味着,15日的操作是2020年以来中国央行的首次逆回购操作,也是中国央行1月6日降准后的首次逆回购操作。

1月6日,中国央行决定将金融机构存款准备金率调降0.5个百分点,预计将释放逾8,000亿元长期流动性。

申万宏源债券首席分析师孟祥娟分析指,此次降准既能应对本月地方债发行等中长期资金需求,亦能提前对冲月内缴税、逆回购到期,及中国新年等短期资金需求,除了降准以外,月内中国央行或继续透过逆回购投放,以及临时准备金动用安排等形式继续填补流动性缺口。

东北证券在研究报告中指出,本月财政存款将收紧流动性约5,000亿元,缴税影响约20,000亿元,缴准环比减少5,230亿元,M0环比增加17,000亿元,商业银行库存现金增加3,000亿元。降准成为唯一利好流动性的分项,其它项目均为对流动性负面。

市场数据显示,中国今年地方专项债发行时间比去年提前,史上最早地方债发行已经于1月1日启动,规模将超8,000亿元,并且地方政府的到期偿还将逐渐达到一个高潮。

业内人士称,中国央行宣布降准,除官方声称的降低实体经济融资成本外,保障地方债发行亦是目的之一。

中金公司对于一月份地方债发行规模也给出了相似的预计,从地方债发行历史来看,是单月的发行高峰,因此降准还有助于减轻地方债天量供给带来的流动性冲击。

地方债作为中国债券市场利率债的三大品种之一,截至2019年11月末,地方债存量已超过20万亿元,仅次于政策性金融债但高于国债。此前业内人士预期,1月地方债发行规模可能达8,000-9,000亿元,一季度的累计发行量则高达2万亿元。

2017年和2018年地方债启动发行时间均在2月份;2019年则提前至1月下旬,当月地方债发行总规模达4,179亿元;进入2020年,中国财政部要求各地方政府,“要做好专项债发行使用工作,早发行、早使用,确保2020年初即可使用见效。”

逆回购和MLF

逆回购,是指中国央行向一级交易商购买有价证券,借出资金,并约定在未来特定日期再将有价证券卖给一级交易商的交易行为。简单来说就是主动借出资金,获取债券质押的交易就称为逆回购交易,此时投资者就是接受债券质押,借出资金的融出方。

而正回购,是指央行向一级交易商卖出有价证券,收回资金,并约定在未来特定日期买回有价证券的交易行为。

MLF全称为中期借贷便利(Medium-term Lending Facility,MLF),主要对象是大型银行。

简单来说,MLF就是央行借钱给商业银行,然后由商业银行再贷款给三农企业和小微企业等,等于变相释放流动性。实际操作的话,商业银行需提交一部分金融资产作为抵押,央行才可以进行发放贷款,同时,商业银行到期需要支付一定利息给央行。

MLF有什么用?

通常情况下,商业银行是通过借用短期资金,来发放长期贷款。短期资金到期之后,商业银行就得重新借用资金,所以为了维持一笔期限比较长的贷款,商业银行需要频繁借用短期资金,这样做存在一定短期利率风险和成本。而由于MLF期限较长,所以商业银行如果用这笔资金发放贷款,就不需要频繁的借短放长。

 

 

津巴布韦和日本、南非以及尼日利亚一起,与中国签署了一项货币交换协议,津巴布韦希望借此将能改善两国的双边贸易。

津巴布韦财政部长姆苏里・恩古比教授在津巴布韦总统埃默森・姆南加格瓦(Emmerson Mnangagwa)和中共外长王毅在首都哈拉雷国家宫会晤期间接受国营媒体采访时证实了这项协议。

这位中国高级官员目前正在开展非洲五国外交攻势,期间将前往埃及、吉布提、厄立特里亚、布隆迪以及津巴布韦。北京表示,此访是为了纪念中非合作论坛20周年。

哈拉雷目前是华盛顿和欧盟锁定的制裁目标,因此正在逐渐转向中国寻求援助。有经济学家警告,北京正在为津巴布韦这类苦苦挣扎的非洲国家布设债务陷阱。

津巴布韦正在面临数十年来最严重的经济危机,特征是高通胀,以及货币和燃料短缺,断电能够持续18小时。世界食品计划说,津巴布韦人口的大约一半食物没有保障。

津巴布韦大学的经济学教授托尼・哈瓦金斯对美国之音津巴布韦语组说,这项协议表明,津巴布韦为恢复岌岌可危的经济正在拼命挣扎。

哈瓦金斯还说,哈拉雷必须解决它的经济危机,制止”隔靴挠痒地处理麻烦,而不是真正解决问题“。

津巴布韦国家商会首席执行官克里斯・穆加加说,“中国充分了解,津巴布韦正在陷入货币危机不能自拔,受影响的不仅有商业,甚至包括百姓家庭。基于这种背景,我认为,目前的货币交换是寻找解决方案的一种努力,尤其针对经常项目赤字而言,中国是其中的最大受益者。众所周知,我们依然是从中国进口的东西多,出口北京的东西少。”

然而,从事投资的银行业者吉尔伯特・穆庞达说,这项协议将使哈拉雷受益,因为哈拉雷一直为西方所孤立。

 

 

美国总统川普和中国国务院副总理刘鹤周三(15日)在白宫签署第一阶段贸易协议。不过,外界不禁要问,美国方面既然是川普亲自签署协议,那按地位对等关系,为什么中方不是由习近平来签署?

旅美独立政经评论员秦鹏对美国之音说,贸易战开打以来,中共出现过反复,也在背后做了很多和贸易战无关的动作,包括伊朗、朝鲜、阿富汗塔利班,“最后还是不得不坐下来,讨论‘核心关切’里的两大问题”。

他说,中共内部很多反对派认为贸易协议有点像是《南京条约》一样不平等的“卖国协议”。若习近平出席签约有点“太掉面子”,只好让刘鹤当一下“李鸿章”。

圣托马斯大学国际研究中心的叶耀元教授接受美国之音采访时则认为,习近平必须要让刘鹤签约,以安抚国内反对派的不满情绪。他分析称,中方其实没有在美中贸易协议中得到太多好处。目前已经看到中国真的因为贸易战在流血。

他说,中方选择以“止血的方式”来处理,所以这个协议不得不签。

另一方面,叶教授认为川普(特朗普)亲自签署贸易协议,主要是因为他必须在11月的总统选举前拿出政绩向选民交代。

外界一直很关心,中共是否会执行协议内容。针对此,叶耀元指出,协议的签署跟执行是两件事。例如,中共签署了人权条约,也签署了环境保护条约,那中共有去执行吗?

秦鹏则说,中共在短期内毁约的可能性比较小,但是中共可能会在其它方面搅局,这是中共的本性。

协议里的农产品采购清单属于保密内容,没有被公开,秦鹏认为这是出于中共的“面子问题”。中方的说词是,大宗采购会影响国际价格波动,所以不宜公开。秦鹏说,这个理由无法让人信服。

他说,中国对美国贸易顺差减少2000亿美元、知识产权的保护,以及开放金融市场等协议内容,都不是中国对美国的要求。这形势对中共来说很尴尬,但又不得不签署,因此只好采取隐晦态度。

一连串的关税加征,让中共招架不住。秦鹏说,去年年底的三个多月时间,中共在贸易谈判中谈的不是关税问题,而是如何在文本协议让中共挽回一些颜面,对经济的打击更小。

秦鹏认为,第一阶段协议在农产品采购、开放市场、保护知识产权方面对中共也有利。例如在农产品采购方面,中国国内的大豆产量无法做到自给自足;猪瘟导致猪肉短缺,因此中国也需要大量进口猪肉。此外,开放金融市场可让更多外汇进入中国市场,也可以进一步把中国和美国的金融市场捆绑,这些对中共也有利。

 

 

一位美国的中国问题专家在纽约说,美中虽然达成了“第一阶段”贸易协议,但两国关系在2020年会继续恶化,并对地区和世界产生全方位重大影响。

“我认为,在2020年,中美关系的这种消极和脱钩的基本趋势会继续扩大,不会停滞、不会逆转,并将对所有其他议题产生巨大影响,从气候变化到该地区和世界其它地方的经济增长前景。”

这是欧亚集团全球市场研究与战略主任尼古拉斯.康森瑞(Nicholas Consonery)周二在纽约亚洲协会预测“亚洲2020年”重大事件时说的。

康森瑞认为,跟贸易僵局不同,下一阶段的美中关系的紧张将呈现新的特点,“以意识形态、价值观、国家安全和高技术为其特征。”

2020大选前不太可能达成第二阶段协议

康森瑞预测,美中之间“第二阶段协议”不太可能在2020年美国大选前达成。美国大选日是2020年11月3日。

康森瑞认为,造成2020美中关系继续紧张的原因存在于华盛顿和北京双方。首先,只要美国的股市和经济继续保持良好,特朗普将继续对中国采取强硬姿态,“我们已经看到一个明确的模式,即特朗普在股市和经济表现良好的时侯,他被激励采取对中国更强硬的姿态”,“这是他2016年竞选的重要策略,我认为这在2020年会非常相似。”

康森瑞认为更关键、更重要的在北京,习近平领导下的中国“对追求根本性经济改革似乎并没有真正的兴趣,而这推动了(美国)对华政策朝着强硬路线调整。”

2020全球经济可能同步放缓

《外交政策》杂志的执行编辑拉维.阿格拉瓦尔(Ravi Agrawal)说,最令他担心的是如国际货币基金组织预测的2020全球经济增长同步放缓。他说,

“很显然,亚洲经济体需要增长才能实现其所有目标,才能创造就业机会,才能让朝气蓬勃的年轻人口保持健康、快乐和希望,也才能兑现许多领导者上台时作出的有关基础设施的承诺。如果经济在南亚继续放缓,我认为所有这些事情都会改变,例如直到最近一直是全球增长最快的印度,现在最令人担忧的是急剧放缓。上一季度的增长率为4.5%,从2016年的9.3%跌下来。这是一个真正的放缓。从那产生的后果可能是深远的,令人非常担忧。这就是我担心的事情。”

另外,阿格拉瓦尔预测,2019年遍及全球的抗议运动在2020年会继续,“很显然,这是自1989年柏林墙倒塌以来新一代年轻人首次出现的全球性新闻。我认为,民主制度、资本主义给他们带来的,还有气候变化,是一个更大的幻灭。所有这些东西加在一起,谁知道这种趋势会如何发展。”

阿格拉瓦尔说,2019年全球性抗议活动出现在拉丁美洲的智利、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔和玻利维亚;中东的伊朗、伊拉克、黎巴嫩和沙特阿拉伯;以及亚洲的印度尼西亚、印度、巴基斯坦和香港。虽然原因各不相同,但确是全球性的,而其中尤以香港最为突出,也最难以预测其结果。

2020年香港的抗议运动将如何发展?可能会有什么样的解决方案?香港特首林郑月娥是否会被北京替换?

2020香港:僵局是最好状态

“2020年香港抗议事件能期望的最好状态就是陷于僵局,”欧亚集团全球市场研究与战略主任康森瑞和《外交政策》杂志的执行编辑阿格拉瓦尔都这样认为。

康森瑞预测,香港政府必须作出足够的、远超迄今为止所看到的让步,才能在短期内平息抗议者的愤怒。“但我认为,这只是短期的,除非他们开始就长期的政治改革问题进行更为认真的讨论,否则这只能是个短期解决方案。前景很难乐观。”

“北京绝不会让步。”阿格拉瓦尔认为,“要他们屈服是绝对不能接受的。只要他们不让步,那就很难在香港看到任何的好结局。”

康森瑞认为,2020林郑有可能被北京替换,但阿格拉瓦尔认为不可能,“别忘了林郑月娥对北京来说是个有用的掩护,如果她被替换掉,北京就要承担更大责任。”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

中华人民共和国政府和美利坚合众国政府

经济贸易协议

 

序 言

中华人民共和国政府与美利坚合众国政府(以下合称“双方”),认识到双边经贸关系的重要性;

认识到贸易增长和遵循国际规范、以促进基于市场的成果,符合两国的利益;

深信和谐发展、扩大全球贸易和促进更广泛国际合作可带来的益处;

承认双方提出的现有贸易和投资关切;

认识到以尽可能建设性的、快速的方式解决现有和未来贸易与投资关切是可取的,

达成以下协议:

 

第一章 知识产权

第一节 一般义务

美国认识到知识产权保护的重要性。中国正从重要知识产权消费国转变为重要知识产权生产国,中国认识到,建立和实施知识产权保护和执行的全面法律体系的重要性。中国认为,不断加强知识产权保护和执法,有利于建设创新型国家,发展创新型企业,推动经济高质量发展。

第1.1条

中国与美国为此确认承诺有关知识产权第一节至第十一节的条款。

第1.2条

双方应确保公平、充分、有效的知识产权保护和执法。对于依赖知识产权保护的一方个人,对方应确保为其提供公平、平等的市场准入。

第二节 商业秘密和保密商务信息

美国重视商业秘密保护。中国认为保护商业秘密是优化营商环境的核心要素之一。双方同意,确保对商业秘密和保密商务信息

的有效保护,以及对侵犯上述信息1行为的有效执法。

第1.3条 侵犯商业秘密责任人的范围

一、双方应确保所有自然人和法人均可承担侵犯商业秘密的法律责任。

二、中国应将侵犯商业秘密的“经营者”定义为包括所有自然人、组织和法人。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.4条 构成侵犯商业秘密的禁止行为范围

一、双方应确保,侵犯商业秘密被追究责任的禁止行为,其范围完全涵盖盗窃商业秘密的方式。

二、中国应列出构成侵犯商业秘密的其他行为,尤其是:(一)电子入侵;(二)违反或诱导违反不披露秘密信息或意图保密的信息的义务;(三)对于在有义务保护商业秘密不被披露或有义务限制使用商业秘密的情形下获得的商业秘密,未经授权予以披露或使用。


1 双方同意,保密商务信息是涉及或与如下情况相关的信息:任何自然人或法人的商业秘密、流程、经营、作品风格或设备,或生产、商业交易,或物流、客户信息、库存,或收入、利润、损失或费用的金额或来源,或其他具备商业价值的信息,且披露上述信息可能对持有该信息的自然人或法人的竞争地位造成极大损害。

三、中国与美国同意加强商业秘密保护方面的合作。

四、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.5条 民事程序中的举证责任转移

一、双方应规定,在侵犯商业秘密的民事司法程序中,如商业秘密权利人已提供包括间接证据在内的初步证据,合理指向被告方侵犯商业秘密,则举证责任或提供证据的责任(在各自法律体系下使用适当的用词)转移至被告方。

二、中国应规定:(一)当商业秘密权利人提供以下证据,未侵犯商业秘密的举证责任或提供证据的责任(在各自法律体系下使用适当的用词)转移至被告方:1.被告方曾有渠道或机会获取商业秘密的证据,且被告方使用的信息在实质上与该商业秘密相同;2. 商业秘密已被或存在遭被告方披露或使用的风险的证据;或3.商业秘密遭到被告方侵犯的其他证据;以及(二)在权利人提供初步证据,证明其已对其主张的商业秘密采取保密措施的情形下,举证责任或提供证据的责任(在各自法律体系下使用适当的用词)转移至被告方,以证明权利人确认的商业秘密为通常处理所涉信息范围内的人所普遍知道或容易获得,因而不是商业秘密。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.6条 阻止使用商业秘密的临时措施

一、双方应规定及时、有效的临时措施,以阻止使用被侵犯的

商业秘密。

二、中国应将使用或试图使用所主张的商业秘密信息认定为“紧急情况”,使得司法机关有权基于案件的特定事实和情形采取行为保全措施。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.7条 启动刑事执法的门槛

一、双方应取消任何将商业秘密权利人确定发生实际损失作为启动侵犯商业秘密刑事调查前提的要求。

二、中国:(一)作为过渡措施,应澄清在相关法律的商业秘密条款中,作为刑事执法门槛的“重大损失”可以由补救成本充分证明,例如为减轻对商业运营或计划的损害或重新保障计算机或其他系统安全所产生的成本,并显著降低启动刑事执法的所有门槛; 以及(二)作为后续措施,应在可适用的所有措施中取消将商业秘密权利人确定发生实际损失作为启动侵犯商业秘密刑事调查前提的要求。

第1.8条 刑事程序和处罚

一、双方应规定刑事程序和处罚适用于对故意侵犯商业秘密的处理。

二、中国的刑事程序和处罚应至少将出于非法目的,通过盗窃、

欺诈、实体或电子入侵的形式侵犯商业秘密的行为,以及未经授权或不当使用计算机系统的行为列为禁止行为。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.9条 保护商业秘密和保密商务信息免于政府机构未经授权的披露

一、为进一步加强对商业秘密的保护,更好地鼓励各类企业创新,中国应禁止政府工作人员或第三方专家或顾问,未经授权披露在中央或地方政府层面刑事、民事、行政或监管程序中提交的未披露信息、商业秘密或保密商务信息。

二、中国应要求各级行政机构和其他机构:(一)将提交信息的要求控制在合法实施调查或监管所需范围内;(二)将有权接触所提交信息的人员仅限于实施合法调查或监管的政府工作人员;

(三)确保已提交信息的安全和保护;(四)确保与信息提交方有竞争关系,或与调查或监管结果有实际或可能经济利益关系的第三方专家或顾问,不得接触到此类信息;(五)建立申请豁免信息披露的程序,以及对向第三方披露信息提出异议的机制;(六)对未经授权披露商业秘密或保密商务信息的行为实施应阻遏此类未经授权披露的刑事、民事和行政处罚,包括罚金和停止或终止聘用, 以及作为修订相关法律的最终措施一部分的监禁。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待

遇。

第三节 药品相关的知识产权

药品事关人民生命健康,寻找治疗和治愈疾病的新方法的需求持续存在,例如针对癌症、糖尿病、高血压和中风等。为促进中美双方在医药领域的创新与合作,更好满足患者需要,双方应为药品相关知识产权,包括专利以及为满足上市审批条件而提交的未经披露的试验数据或其他数据,提供有效保护和执法。

第1.10条 考虑补充数据

一、中国应允许药品专利申请人在专利审查程序、专利复审程序和司法程序中,依靠补充数据来满足可专利性的相关要求,包括对公开充分和创造性的要求。

二、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.11条 专利纠纷早期解决的有效机制

一、作为批准包括生物药在内的药品上市的条件,如果中国允 许原始提交安全性与有效性信息的人以外的其他人,依靠之前已经 获批产品的安全性和有效性的证据或信息,例如在中国或其他国家、地区已获上市批准的证据,中国应:(一)规定制度,以通知专利 权人、被许可人或上市许可持有人,上述其他人正在已获批产品或 其获批使用方法所适用的专利有效期内寻求上市该产品;(二)规 定足够的时间和机会,让该专利权人在被指控侵权的产品上市之前 寻求(三)段中提供的救济;以及(三)规定司法或行政程序和快

速救济,例如行为保全措施或与之相当的有效的临时措施,以便及

时解决关于获批药品或其获批使用方法所适用的专利的有效性或侵权的纠纷。

二、中国应在全国范围内建立与上述第一段相符的药品相关制度,包括规定专利权人、被许可人或上市许可持有人有权在被指控侵权的产品获得上市许可前提起诉讼,就可适用专利的有效性或侵权的纠纷解决寻求民事司法程序和快速救济。中国还可提供行政程序解决此类纠纷。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第四节  专利

第1.12条 专利有效期的延长

一、双方应规定延长专利有效期以补偿专利授权或药品上市审批过程中的不合理延迟。

二、(一)中国在专利权人的请求下,应延长专利的有效期, 以补偿在专利授权过程中并非由申请人引起的不合理延迟。就本条规定而言,不合理延迟应至少包含,自在中国提交申请之日起4年内或要求审查申请后3年内未被授予专利权,以较晚日期为准。

(二)对于在中国获批上市的新药产品及其制造和使用方法的专利,应专利权人的请求,中国应对新药产品专利、其获批使用方法或制造方法的专利有效期或专利权有效期提供调整,以补偿由该产品首次在中国商用的上市审批程序给专利权人造成的专利有效

期的不合理缩减。任何此种调整都应在同等的限制和例外条件下,

授予原专利中适用于获批产品及使用方法的对产品、其使用方法或制造方法的专利主张的全部专有权。中国可限制这种调整至最多不超过5年,且自在中国上市批准日起专利总有效期不超过14年。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第五节 电子商务平台上的盗版与假冒

为促进电子商务的发展,中国与美国应加强合作,共同并各自打击电子商务市场的侵权假冒行为。双方应减少可能存在的壁垒, 使消费者及时获取合法内容,并使合法内容得到著作权保护,同时, 对电商平台提供有效执法,从而减少盗版和假冒。

第1.13条 打击网络侵权

一、中国应提供执法程序,使得权利人能够针对网络环境下的侵权行为采取有效、迅速的行动,包括有效的通知及下架制度,以应对侵权。

二、中国应:(一)要求迅速下架;(二)免除善意提交错误下架通知的责任;(三)将权利人收到反通知后提出司法或行政投诉的期限延长至20个工作日;(四)通过要求通知和反通知提交相关信息,以及对恶意提交通知和反通知进行处罚,以确保下架通知和反通知的有效性。

三、美国确认,美国现行执法程序允许权利人采取行动,应对网络环境下的侵权。

四、双方同意考虑在合适的情况下进一步合作,以打击网络侵

权。

第1.14条 主要电子商务平台上的侵权

一、针对未能采取必要措施整治知识产权侵权的主要电子商务平台,双方应采取有效行动,打击平台上泛滥的假冒或盗版商品。

二、中国应规定屡次未能遏制假冒或盗版商品销售的电子商务平台可能被吊销网络经营许可。

三、美国确认,美国正在研究采取更多举措,打击假冒或盗版商品的销售。

第六节 地理标志

双方应确保地理标志的保护实现完全透明和程序公平,包括保护通用名称2(即常用名称)、尊重在先的商标权、明确的允许提出异议和撤销的程序,以及为依赖商标或使用通用名称的对方的出口产品提供公平的市场准入。

第1.15条 地理标志和国际协议

一、中国应确保针对其他贸易伙伴依据一项国际协定已提出或将要提出的关于承认或保护地理标志的请求所采取的任何措施,不会减损使用商标和通用名称出口至中国的美国货物和服务的市场准入。

二、中国应给予包括美国在内的贸易伙伴必要机会,以对中国


2 一方可将“通用”这一术语视为与“在通用语言中,惯用于相关货物的常用名称”同义。

与其他贸易伙伴协议的清单、附录、附件或附函中所列举的地理标

志提出异议。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.16条 一般市场准入相关的地理标志问题

一、中国应确保:(一)主管部门在确定某一名称在中国是否为通用名称时,考虑中国消费者如何理解这一名称,包括以下因素: 1.字典、报纸和相关网站等可信来源;2.该名称所指的货物在中国营销和在贸易中如何使用;3.该名称是否在合适的情况下,在相关标准中被使用以对应中国的一种类型或类别的货物,例如根据食品法典委员会颁布的标准;4.有关货物是否从申请书或请求书中所表明地域之外的地方大量进口至中国,且不会以在货物原产地方面误导公众的方式进行,以及这些进口货物是否以该名称命名;且(二) 任何地理标志,无论是否根据国际协议或其他方式被授予或承认, 都可能随时间推移而变成通用名称,并可能因此被撤销。

二、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.17条 复合名称

一、双方应确保,如果受到一方地理标志保护的复合名称中的单独组成部分是通用名称,该部分应不受该方地理标志保护。

二、当中国向复合名称提供地理标志保护时,如该复合名称中有不予保护的单独组成部分,应公开列明。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待

遇。

第七节 盗版和假冒产品的生产和出口

盗版和假冒产品严重危害公众的利益,并且伤害中美两国权利人。双方应采取持续、有效的行动,阻止假冒和盗版产品的生产和分销,包括对公共卫生或个人安全产生重大影响的产品。

第1.18条 假冒药

一、双方应采取有效和迅速的执法行动,打击假冒药品和包含活性药物成分、散装化学品或生物制品的相关产品。

二、中国应采取的措施包括:(一)采取有效和迅速的执法行动,打击假冒药品和生物药的相关产品,包括活性药物成分、散装化学品和生物制品;(二)与美国分享经中国监管部门检查,并符合中国法律法规要求的药品原料场地注册信息,以及相关执法检查的必要信息;(三)在本协议生效后6个月内,每年在网上发布执法措施的相关数据,包括国家药品监督管理局、工业和信息化部或继任机构查缴、吊销营业执照、罚款和其他行动的情况。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施可以快速、有效地打击假冒药品及相关产品。

第1.19条 存在健康和安全风险的假冒商品

一、双方应确保持续和有效的行动,阻止对公共卫生或个人安全产生重大影响的假冒产品的生产和分销。

二、中国应采取的措施包括,在本协议生效后3个月内,显著

增加执法行动数量;在本协议生效后4个月内,每季度在网上发布

相关执法行动产生的可衡量影响的数据。

三、双方应致力于考虑在合适的情况下加强合作,打击存在健康和安全风险的假冒商品。

第1.20条 销毁假冒商品

一、在边境措施上,双方应规定:(一)除特殊情况外,销毁被当地海关以假冒或盗版为由中止放行并作为盗版或假冒商品查封和没收的商品;(二)仅去除非法附着的假冒商标不足以允许该商品进入商业渠道;(三)除特殊情况外,主管部门在任何情况下均无裁量权允许假冒或盗版商品出口或进入其他海关程序。

二、关于民事司法程序,双方应规定:(一)根据权利人的请求,除特殊情况外,应销毁认定为假冒或盗版的商品;(二)根据权利人的请求,司法部门应责令立即销毁主要用于生产或制造假冒或盗版商品的材料和工具,且不予任何补偿;或在特殊情况下,将这些商品在商业渠道之外进行处置,且不予任何补偿,以最小化进一步侵权的风险;(三)仅去除非法附着的假冒商标不足以允许该商品进入商业渠道;(四)司法部门应根据权利人的请求,责令假冒者向权利人支付因侵权获得的利益,或支付足以弥补侵权损失的赔偿金。

三、关于刑事执法程序,双方应规定:(一)除特殊情况外, 司法部门应责令没收和销毁所有假冒或盗版商品,以及包含可用于附着在商品上的假冒标识的物品;(二)除特殊情况外,司法部门

应责令没收和销毁主要用于制造假冒或盗版商品的材料和工具;

(三)对于没收和销毁,不应对被告提供任何形式的补偿;(四) 司法部门或其他主管部门应保存拟销毁商品及其他材料的清单,并有裁量权在收到权利人通知其希望对被告或第三方侵权人提起民事或行政诉讼时,暂时将这些物品免于销毁以便保全证据。

四、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.21条 边境执法行动

一、双方应致力于加强执法合作,以减少包括出口或转运在内的假冒和盗版商品数量。

二、中国应重点围绕出口或转运的假冒和盗版商品,针对假冒和盗版商品的检查、扣押、查封、行政没收和行使其他海关执法权力,持续增加受训执法人员的数量。中国应采取的措施包括,在本协议生效后9个月内,显著增加对海关执法相关人员的培训;在本协议生效后3个月内,显著增加执法行动数量,并每季度在网上更新执法行动信息。

三、双方同意考虑在合适的情况下开展边境执法合作。第1.22条 实体市场执法

一、双方应持续、有效地打击实体市场的著作权和商标侵权行为。

二、中国应采取的措施包括,在本协议生效后4个月内,显著增加执法行动数量;每季度在网上更新针对实体市场执法行动的信

息。

三、美国确认,现有美国措施对实体市场著作权和商标侵权采取了有效执法。

第1.23条 未经许可的软件

一、双方应确保,所有政府机构以及所有政府拥有或控制的实体,均安装和只能使用经许可的软件。

二、中国应采取的措施包括,在本协议生效后7个月内,在国内聘用合格的非政府所有或附属的第三方进行年度审计,并在网上公布审计结果。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施要求政府部门及其承包商仅安装和使用经许可的软件。

第八节 恶意商标第1.24条

为加强商标保护,双方应确保商标权充分和有效的保护和执法, 特别是打击恶意商标注册行为。

第1.25条

美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本节规定内容同等的待遇。

第九节 知识产权案件司法执行和程序第1.26条 行政执法向刑事执法的移交

一、如依据客观标准,存在基于清晰事实的对于知识产权刑事违法行为的“合理嫌疑”,中国应要求行政部门将案件移交刑事执法。

 二、美国确认,美国相关部门有权将适当的案件提交刑事执法。

第1.27条 达到阻遏目的的处罚

一、双方应规定足以阻遏未来知识产权窃取或侵权的民事救济和刑事处罚。

二、中国:(一)作为过渡措施,应阻遏可能发生的窃取或侵犯知识产权的行为,并加强现有救济和惩罚的适用,按照知识产权相关法律,通过以接近或达到最高法定处罚的方式从重处罚,阻遏可能发生的窃取或侵犯知识产权的行为,以及(二)作为后续措施, 应提高法定赔偿金、监禁刑和罚金的最低和最高限度,以阻遏未来窃取或侵犯知识产权的行为。

三、美国应致力于考虑在合适的情况下与中国加强在双边知识产权刑事执法工作组框架下的交流与合作,在知识产权刑事执法方面考虑更多经验分享与务实合作。

第1.28条 判决执行

一、双方应确保其法院最终判决的任何罚款、处罚、经济赔偿支付、禁令或其他侵犯知识产权的救济措施,得到迅速执行。

二、中国应采取的措施包括,执行工作指南和实施计划以确保迅速执行判决,在本协议生效后1个月内,公布工作指南和实施计划,并每季度在网上公布执行结果报告。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施可保障对于判决的快速执行,包括针对侵犯知识产权的相关判决。

第1.29条 著作权和相关权的执行

一、在涉及著作权或相关权的民事、行政和刑事程序中,双方

应:(一)规定如下的法律推定:如果没有相反的证据,以通常方式署名显示作品的作者、出版者、表演的表演者或录音制品的表演者、制作人,就是该作品、表演或录音制品的著作权人或相关权利人,而且著作权或相关权利存在于上述作品、表演、录音制品中;

(二)在符合第一项推定且被诉侵权人没有提交反驳证据的情况下, 免除出于确立著作权或相关权的所有权、许可或侵权的目的,提交 著作权或相关权的转让协议或其他文书的要求;(三)规定被诉侵 权人承担提供证据的责任或举证责任(在各自法律体系下使用适当 的用词),证明其对受著作权或相关权保护的作品的使用是经过授 权的,包括被诉侵权人声称已经从权利人获得使用作品的准许的情 况,例如许可。

二、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.30条 文书认证(“领事认证”)

一、在民事司法程序中,对于可通过当事人之间认可或以接受伪证处罚为前提的证人证言来引入或确认真实性的证据,则双方不得提出证据认证的形式要求,包括要求领事官员盖章或盖印等。

二、对于无法通过当事人之间认可或以接受伪证处罚为前提的证人证言引入或确认真实性的证据,中国应简化公证和认证程序。

三、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第1.31条 证人证言

一、在民事司法程序中,中国应给予当事方在案件中邀请证人或专家,并在庭审中对证人证言进行质询的合理机会。

二、美国确认,美国现行措施给予与本条款规定内容同等的待遇。

第十节 双边知识产权保护合作第1.32条

与本协议知识产权章节相关的合作活动和倡议应基于可用资源,根据要求,并按照双方一致同意的条款和条件进行。

第1.33条

双方同意,加大知识产权保护双边合作力度,推动在该领域的务实合作。中国国家知识产权局和美国专利商标局将讨论知识产权双年度合作工作计划,内容包括联合项目,产业外联,信息和专家交流,通过会议和其他方式定期互动,以及公众意识领域的合作。

第十一节 履行第1.34条

双方应在各自的法律体系和实践中,选择合适的方式履行本协议。必要时,双方应按国内法定程序,向立法机构提出修法建议。与双边评估和争端解决章节相一致,双方应确保完全履行本协议下的义务。

第1.35条

在本协议生效后30个工作日内,中国将制定行动计划以加强

知识产权保护,促进经济高质量发展。本行动计划应包括但不限

于中国为履行本章节义务将采取的每一项措施及生效时间。

第1.36条

美国确认,美国现行措施与本章节所规定的义务相一致。

 

第二章 技术转让

双方确认确保按照自愿和基于市场的条件开展技术转让的重要性,并认识到强制技术转让是一项重要关切。由于技术和技术变化给世界经济带来深刻影响,双方进一步认识到采取措施解决这些问题的重要性。

为增进双方关于技术事项的互信与合作,保护知识产权,促进贸易和投资,并为解决长期结构性问题打好基础,双方约定如下:

第 2.1 条 总 则

一、一方的自然人或法人(“个人”)应能够有效进入对方管辖区,公开、自由地开展运营,而不会受到对方强迫或压力向其个人转让技术。

二、双方个人之间的技术转让或许可应基于自愿且反映双方个人同意的市场条件。

三、一方不得支持或指导其个人针对其产业规划所指向的领域和行业,开展以获取外国技术为目的、导致扭曲的境外直接投资活动。

第 2.2 条 市场准入

对于收购、合资或其他投资交易,任何一方都不得要求或施压

对方个人向己方个人转让技术。

第 2.3 条 行政管理和行政许可要求及程序

一、任何一方都不得采取或维持要求或施压对方个人向己方个人转让技术的行政管理和行政许可要求及程序。

二、任何一方都不得正式或非正式地要求或施压对方个人将技术转让给己方个人,并以此作为以下事项的条件,其中包括:(一)批准一项行政管理或行政许可要求;(二)在己方管辖区经营,或进入己方市场;或(三)获得或继续获得己方给予的有利条件。

三、任何一方都不得正式或非正式地要求或施压对方个人,使用或偏向由己方个人所有或许可给己方个人的相关技术,并以此作为以下事项的条件,其中包括:(一)批准一项行政管理或行政许可要求;(二)在己方管辖区经营,或进入己方市场;或(三)获得或继续获得己方给予的有利条件。

四、双方应使其行政管理和行政许可要求及程序透明。

五、双方不得要求或施压外国个人披露为证明其符合相关行政管理或监管要求所不必要的敏感技术信息。

六、双方应对外国个人在行政管理、监管或其他审查过程中披露的任何敏感技术信息予以保密。

第 2.4 条  正当程序和透明度

一、双方应确保所有涉及对方个人的法律法规的执行是公正、

公平、透明和非歧视性的。

二、双方应确保公布与本协议所涉事宜相关的行政程序规则, 并提供实质性通报,内容至少包括程序所涉事项、适用的法律法规、证据规则及相关救济和制裁措施。

三、双方应规定对方个人有以下权利:(一)在针对他们的行政程序中,查阅证据并有实质性机会作出回应;(二)在行政程序中由律师代理。

第 2.5 条 科学与技术合作

双方同意考虑在合适的情况下开展科学与技术合作。

 

第三章 食品和农产品贸易1

第 3.1 条总 则

一、为加强中美两国在影响农业贸易问题上的互信和友好合作, 奠定解决长期关切的基础,推动农业成为双边关系的重要支柱,双 方:

(一)认识到其各农业产业、保障安全可靠的食品和农产品供给、有助于满足两国人民对食品和农产品需求方面的重要性,有意进一步加强农业合作,拓展各自的食品和农产品市场,促进双方之间食品和农产品贸易增长;

(二)考虑到以科学和风险为基础的卫生与植物卫生措施在保护人类、动物及植物生命与健康中发挥着关键作用,而出于保护主义目的使用卫生与植物卫生措施对消费者和生产者福利均有负面影响;认识到确保卫生与植物卫生措施以科学为基础、非歧视及考虑区域间卫生与植物卫生特性差异的重要性,同意各方都不得使用构成对国际贸易的变相限制的卫生或植物卫生措施;

(三)考虑到当进出口商因受到不公平阻止而无法充分利用农


1 本章内容(包括附录各部分与各附件)的任何拟议或最终实施办法(包括现有实施办法的修订内容)均不得适用第八章《最终条款》第五条。

业市场准入机会时,将减少农业贸易体系带来的好处;认识到关税

配额管理不应作为阻止农产品关税配额充分利用的一种手段使用;

(四)注意到农业生物技术有助于养活增长的人口、减少农业 的环境影响、促进更可持续的生产,提高生活水平,有意维持以科 学和风险为基础的农业生物技术产品监管框架和有效率的审批程序, 以便利于此类产品贸易的增长;以及

(五)承认各自遵守其关于世界贸易组织国内农业支持承诺的重要性。

二、附录第一至十七部分列出了具体承诺。

附录一 农业合作

一、双方有意在农业科学和农业技术领域加强和促进互相同意 的合作活动。这些活动可包括双方同意的信息交流和合作。双方有 意基于诚信、对等、公开、透明、科学和法治等原则开展合作活动。

二、双方有意在与农药相关的潜在合作领域进行技术磋商。这些磋商可包括讨论双方农药登记和试验数据,及讨论最大残留限量制定。

三、双方有意继续执行和完善中美农业科学合作交流项目,促进中国和美国科学和技术专家就农业相关问题进一步交流。每一方有意考虑在合适的情况下确保各自政府相关部门或机构参与项目活

动。

四、双方有意考虑在合适的情况下鼓励两国国家和地方层面政 府主管机关、农民、学者、农业企业等开展农业议题的交流和对话。双方有意继续执行和完善现有的农业政策双边交流机制,比如中美 农业合作联委会,通过美国和中国政府参加相关会议便利农业政策 交流,包括中国粮食安全与食品安全战略峰会和中美两国各自召开 的农业展望大会。

五、双方有意促进中美技术专家就共同感兴趣的农业议题开展交流,可考虑在合适的情况下包括农业生产、作物保险、农产品贸易、卫生与植物卫生和乡村发展。

六、双方有意合作,考虑在合适的情况下进行农业可持续发展领域的技术讨论。

七、双方有意通过技术交流访问等方式考虑在合适的情况下加 强动物和植物病虫害信息分享。双方有意考虑在合适的情况下交流, 提升动植物病虫害防控能力的经验,促进病害检测和病虫害检测防 控技术的研发。

八、双方有意以合作的方式就与农业有关的技术措施、卫生与植物卫生措施,包括风险交流议题相互接触。双方有意以合作的方式就上述议题在国际组织如世界贸易组织、亚洲太平洋经济合作组织、联合国粮食及农业组织(粮农组织)和食品法典委员会内,相

互接触、加强配合。

九、双方有意在 2019 年《大阪数字经济宣言》框架下建立合作机制,协商数字技术惠及农业领域的方式。

十、双方有意将各自所有政府相关机构纳入到本附录讨论的政府活动当中。

十一、为明确起见,本附录的内容均不得构成双方支出、拨款

或资金转移的义务以及将人力或其他资源用于任何合作活动的义务。

附录二 乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉

一、本协议生效之日起,中国海关总署与美国食品药品监督管理局应在可行的情况下尽快启动双边技术讨论,审查“进口警报 99- 30”《因含三聚氰胺和/或三聚氰胺类似物针对所有中国乳制品、乳源成分、含乳食品实施自动扣留措施》,以明确取消“进口警报 99- 30”的必要步骤。

乳  品

二、为更好满足中国消费者日益增长的乳品需求,中国应:

(一)本协议一经生效,允许进口的美国乳品:

  1. 由列入美国食品药品监督管理局清单的工厂制造;以及
  2. 附有美国农业部农业市场服务局出具的乳品卫生证书;

(二)在本协议生效之日起 10 日内,认可美国乳品安全体系提

供至少与中国乳品安全体系同等的保护水平;

(三)每当美国向中国提供美国食品药品监督管理局管辖内更新的乳品工厂和产品完整清单,在收到清单后 20 个工作日内:

  1. 对清单上的工厂注册并在海关总署网站公布该工厂和产品清单;以及
    1. 允许上述工厂的美国乳品输入中国;

(四)允许进口附有美国农业部农业市场服务局卫生证书的牛、绵羊和山羊乳品;

(五)关于延长货架期乳:

  1. 允许产自美国的延长货架期乳进口并在中国作为巴氏杀菌乳销售;
  2. 若中国开展制定延长货架期乳新标准,向世界贸易组织通报标准草案;

 

  1. 确保新标准及所有实施行动符合中国世界贸易组织义务;以

 根据第二条第 13 4 款规定允许进口美国延长货架期乳;

(六)关于强化乳:

  1. 根据第二条第 13 4 款规定,按照中国《食品安全国家标准调制乳》(GB25191),允许美国生产的强化乳输入中国;
  1. 若产品采用了巴氏杀菌工艺,允许标识为“巴氏杀菌调制乳”

向消费者出售;

  1. 当中国开展制定强化乳新标准,向世界贸易组织通报标准草案;以及
    1. 确保新标准及所有实施行动符合中国世界贸易组织义务;

(七)关于美国超滤液态乳:

  1. 根据第二条第 13 4 款规定,按照《食品安全国家标准

—调制乳》(GB25191),允许美国超滤液态乳输入中国,且产品应该具有“超滤技术”标识;

  1. 若产品采用了巴氏杀菌工艺,允许标识为“巴氏杀菌调制乳”;
  2. 当中国制定超滤乳新标准草案,向世界贸易组织通报该标准草案;以及

 

  1. 确保新标准及所有实施行动符合中国世界贸易组织义务;以

(八)关于美国乳渗透物粉:

  1. 在本协议生效之日起 60 个工作日内:

(1) 按照国家卫生计生委办公厅《关于规范进口尚无食品安全 国家标准审查工作的通知》(国卫办食品发〔201714 号)的要求,

完成美国食用乳渗透物粉的审批;以及

(2) 允许美国乳渗透物粉进口;

  1. 若中国开展制定乳渗透物粉新标准,向世界贸易组织通报标准草案;以及
    1. 确保新标准及所有实施行动符合中国世界贸易组织义务。

婴幼儿配方乳粉

三、为更好满足中国消费者日益增长的婴幼儿配方乳粉需求, 中国应:

(一)在审查美国婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册申请及作出注册决定时,充分考虑美国《联邦食品、药品和化妆品法》(21 U.S.C § 350a)第 412 节及其实施规定;

(二)无论申请实体是否与一个已注册工厂具有关联,接受产品注册申请,完成审查并发布决定;

(三)通常在接到申请后的 45 个工作日内,完成对美国工厂婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册申请的技术审查;

(四)通常在完成技术审查后 40 个工作日内,完成婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册所需要的有关核查、检查、抽样或检测,其条件是, 美国生产商在必要的情况下及时提供准入;

(五)把此前美国食品药品监督管理局对产品的审查、检查和

制造工厂合规情况的决定纳入考虑范围,在技术审查或所需的核查、

检查、抽样或检测完成后 20 个工作日内完成产品注册;

(六)确保不会披露婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册过程中提供的所有商业秘密;

(七)每当美国向中国提供美国食品药品监督管理局管辖内婴 幼儿配方乳粉工厂的更新完整清单,如果该婴幼儿配方乳粉产品已 在中国国家市场监督管理总局注册,在收到清单后的 20 个工作日内, 对清单上的工厂实施注册并在中国海关总署网站公布该清单,允许 这些工厂的美国婴幼儿配方乳粉输入中国;

(八)对于注册续期,不要求:

  1. 婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂注册续期多于每 4 年一次;
  2. 婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册续期多于每 5 年一次;

(九)当决定产品注册或重新注册是否需要进行工厂检查时, 将此前中国核查报告、美国监管信息和其他有关信息予以考虑,包括制造商提供的信息;以及

(十)本协议生效之日起 1 周内,中国海关总署对产品已在中国获批、而工厂注册申请待批的美国婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂,完成工厂注册,并在中国海关总署网站公布完整工厂清单。

乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉核查和检查

四、中国应:

(一)在对美国乳品或婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂进行检查或核查时, 至少提前  20 个工作日通知美国食品药品监督管理局、美国农业部及该工厂;

(二)为简化程序,提高效率,促进贸易便利化,将不以现场核查或检查作为注册乳品工厂或婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂的前提条件; 以及

(三)确保所有针对婴幼儿配方乳粉产品注册或乳品、婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂注册所开展的核查或检查,目的是验证美国监管体系或该工厂是否有能力达到适用要求。

五、中国继续有权对美国乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉食品安全监管 体系进行核查,包括与美国食品药品监督管理局协调核查有代表性 的美国乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉工厂。核查应以风险为基础。中国继 续有权在入境口岸基于风险抽取美国乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉货物进 行检查。如果中国根据科学检查判定某批美国乳品或婴幼儿配方乳 粉产品货物违反适用食品安全进口要求,中国可拒绝进口该批货物。如果中国判定某工厂存在违反适用食品安全要求方面的重大违规行 为或违规行为持续或反复出现,中国可拒绝接受该工厂货物,直至 问题解决。中国应就此类违规行为通报美国食品药品监督管理局。 双方应就乳品和婴幼儿配方乳粉食品安全监管体系和其他公共卫生

事宜交换信息。

附录三 禽 肉

一、双方应自本协议生效之日起 30 日内,签署并实施《特定重大禽类疫病通报和防控程序合作议定书》。

二、本协议生效之日起 30 日内,中国应基于以往对美国监管体

系的评估,对是否允许进口 2015 年 1 月 1 日前输入中国的美国禽类和禽类产品发布最终决定。中国应根据双方商定的现有进口议定书准许进口。

三、中国应维持与《世界动物卫生组织陆生动物卫生法典》

(2018 年版)第 10.4 章或相应后续规定相一致的措施。

四、在收到中国关于评估中国禽类疫病无疫区认定的正式要求, 及支持该要求的涵盖《美国联邦法典》第 9 卷第 92 章 8 个方面或相应后续规定的完整配套信息后,美国农业部动植物卫生检验局应在 30 日内启动该项评估。

附录四 牛 肉

一、双方应继续执行 2017 年签署的美国牛肉和牛肉产品输华议定书。如果该议定书的相关要求与本协议不符,应以本协议为准。双方可酌情根据本协议修改议定书。

二、中国承认,美国已按照中国要求提交所有相关和必需资料,

以便完成与所有美国牛肉、牛肉产品和含反刍动物成分的宠物食品

进口相关的风险评估。中国应自本协议生效之日起 1 个月内取消对进口美国牛肉和牛肉产品的牛龄要求。

三、中国认可美国牛肉和牛肉产品的可追溯体系。美国政府根据美国法律不断维持达到或高于世界动物卫生组织有关保持《世界动物卫生组织陆生动物卫生法典》(2018 年版)第 11.4 章所列牛类疫病风险可忽略国家地位准则要求的措施,包括可追溯性措施。如果美国保持其世界动物卫生组织认定的该疫病风险可忽略国家分类地位,中国不得对美国牛肉进口施加与该疫病相关的新的进口限制或要求。如果美国风险可忽略国家地位发生变化,则中国应根据

《世界动物卫生组织陆生动物卫生法典》(2018 年版)第  11.4 章

11.4.11 条或任何后续条款,实施美国牛肉的进口管理规定。

四、为更好满足中国消费者日益增长的肉类需求,本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,中国应允许进口美国农业部食品安全检验局在食品安全检验局批准的工厂检查过的牛肉和牛肉产品。附件 1(被认为不符合输入中国的牛肉、猪肉和禽类产品清单)所列产品除外。

五、本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,中国应对进口牛肉中玉米赤霉醇、群勃龙醋酸酯和醋酸美伦孕酮采用最大残留限量。中国应, 对于食品法典已制定以上激素最大残留限量的牛肉组织,采用食品法典的最大残留限量;对于食品法典尚未制定以上激素最大残留限

量的牛肉组织,在制定最大残留限量时,遵循食品法典标准和准则,

并参考其他已进行科学风险评估国家所制定的最大残留限量。

附录五 活种牛

一、基于美国 2019 年 2 月 13 日和 2019 年 3 月 6 日提出的请求

和提供的信息,双方应于本协议生效之日起 1 个月内启动技术磋商, 讨论准备美国种牛输入中国出口卫生证书和议定书,以便尽快实现 贸易。

附录六 猪 肉

一、双方有意在全球非洲猪瘟研究联盟框架下促进合作活动, 分享公开的科学知识和信息,有助于逐步控制并根除非洲猪瘟。

二、为更好满足中国消费者日益增长的肉类需求,本协议生效之日起 10 个工作日内,中国应允许进口美国农业部食品安全检验局在食品安全检验局批准的工厂检查过的猪肉和猪肉产品。

附录七 肉类、禽肉和加工肉类

一、本协议一经生效,中国应认可美国农业部食品安全检验局对美国肉类、禽肉和加工肉类及加工禽肉工厂的监管,其目的是允许美国肉类、禽肉、加工肉类和加工禽肉输入。

二、本协议一经生效,中国应接受美国农业部食品安全检验局在食品安全检验局批准的工厂检查过的并随附出口卫生证书

(FSIS9060-5/FSIS9295-1)的肉类、禽肉、加工肉类和加工禽肉,附件

1(被认为不符合输入中国的牛肉、猪肉和禽类产品清单)所列产品除外。

三、每当美国向中国提供美国农业部食品安全检验局认可工厂的完整更新清单,中国应在收到后 20 个工作日内,在中国海关总署网站上公布清单,允许清单上所有工厂的产品输入中国。

四、中国继续有权对美国肉类和禽肉食品安全监管体系进行核查,包括与美国农业部食品安全检验局协调核查有代表性的美国肉类和禽肉工厂。核查应以风险为基础。中国继续有权在入境口岸基于风险抽取美国肉类和禽肉产品进行检查。如果中国根据科学检查判定某批美国肉类或禽肉产品货物违反适用食品安全进口要求,中国可拒绝进口该批货物。如果中国判定某工厂存在违反适用食品安全要求方面的重大违规行为或违规行为持续或反复出现,中国可拒绝接受该工厂货物,直至问题解决。中国应就此类违规行为通报美国农业部食品安全检验局。双方应就肉类和禽肉食品安全监管体系和其他公共卫生事宜交换信息。

五、中国应以符合食品法典、联合国粮食及农业组织与世界卫生组织(世卫组织)食品添加剂联合专家委员会风险评估指导意见与该联合专家委员会此前进行的莱克多巴胺风险评估的方式,与美国专家协商尽快、不拖延进行牛、猪体内莱克多巴胺的风险评估。

该风险评估应以美国的可验证数据和美国批准的莱克多巴胺使用条

件为基础。中美双方应成立联合工作组,讨论根据风险评估结果要采取的措施。

附录八 肉类和禽肉电子信息系统

一、为便利贸易,深化中美两国在证书方面的合作,中国海关 总署应与美国农业部共同确定电子和自动化系统的技术要求,并实 施该系统,用于查看美国农业部食品安全检验局为美国肉类、禽肉、肉类产品和禽肉产品输入中国发放的出口证书。

二、如果美国执行了该系统并证明其可靠性和安全性,则中国 应在 2020 年 2 月底前使用该系统。中国应通过该系统接受美国肉类、禽肉、肉类产品和禽肉产品货物获准输入中国所有必需信息,包括 美国农业部食品安全检验局出具的证书。中国应及时向口岸海关官 员提供相关证书信息。

三、美国农业部法令允许适当情形下使用替代证书。若美国农业部食品安全检验局确保替代证书清晰可鉴别,中国海关总署应包括在以下情形接受美国农业部发放的替代证书:

(一)原始证书未包含所需信息;

(二)原始证书中有打字印刷错误;

(三)进出口商或收发货方已改变,但所属国家仍与原始证书

所示国家相同;

(四)证书丢失或损坏;或

(五)入境口岸变更。

附录九 水产品

一、本协议生效后,中国海关总署与美国食品药品监督管理局应在尽快可行情况下重启中美水产品技术工作组双边会议。该技术工作组应明确中国可采取何种步骤,向美国食品药品监督管理局提供证据,以评估中国控制措施是否可确保中国输美水产品符合美国要求。美国确认,如中国水产品生产商或出口商向美国食品药品监督管理局提交充足证据,且美国食品药品监督管理局判定该工厂和产品应从《进口警报16-131》排除,则该中国水产品生产商或出口商应被列入《进口警报16-131绿色清单》。

二、为更好满足中国消费者日益增长的水产品需要,本协议生效后,中国海关总署和美国国家海洋和大气管理局应在尽快可行情况下会面,讨论可在美国州际贸易中销售但尚未获准在中国销售的水产品输入中国的审批流程。如美国商务部国家海洋和大气管理局向中国海关总署提交有关上述水产品中某一产品的充足证据,中国海关总署应判定该产品是否安全适于食用以及是否允许输入中国。

三、中国在本协议生效之日起 20 个工作日内,应允许下列货物输入中国:

(一)来自美国食品药品监督管理局认定监管状况良好、并在

中国海关总署注册的水产品工厂,且随附美国国家海洋和大气管理局签发的经双方同意的证书;以及

(二)来自美国国家海洋和大气管理局认定监管状况良好、并在中国海关总署注册的鱼粉加工工厂,且随附美国国家海洋和大气管理局签发的经双方同意的证书。

四、中国应:

(一)每当美国向中国提交美国食品药品监督管理局管辖内水产品工厂的更新完整清单,在收到清单的20个工作日内,注册这些工厂,并在中国海关总署网站公布清单,允许这些工厂的美国水产品输入中国;以及

(二)每当美国向中国提交美国商务部国家海洋和大气管理局管辖内鱼粉加工工厂的更新完整清单,在收到清单的20个工作日内,注册这些工厂,并在中国海关总署网站公布清单,允许这些工厂的美国鱼粉输入中国。

五、中国继续有权对美国水产品食品安全监管体系进行核查, 包括与美国食品药品监督管理局协调核查有代表性的美国水产品 工厂。核查应以风险为基础。中国继续有权在入境口岸基于风险 抽取美国水产品货物进行检查。如判定某批美国水产品货物违反 适用食品安全进口要求,中国可拒绝进口该批货物。如判定某工

厂存在适用食品安全进口措施方面的重大违规行为,或违规行为

持续或反复出现,中国可拒绝接受该工厂货物,直至问题解决。中国应就此类违规行为通报美国食品药品监督管理局。双方应就水产品食品安全监管体系和涉及水产品的其他公共卫生事宜交换信息。

附录十 大 米

一、每当收到美国提供的美国农业部动植物卫生检验局认可符合《美国输华大米植物卫生议定书》的大米工厂清单,中国应在收到清单的 20 个工作日内,注册这些工厂,公布工厂清单,并允许进口来自每一个经美国农业部动植物卫生检验局认可的大米工厂的美国大米。中国继续有权对大米注册工厂进行植物卫生现场核查。

附录十一 植物卫生

一、为了尽快实现贸易,本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,双方应开展技术磋商,尽快签署除兰花外的中国介质盆景输美植物卫生议定书。

二、本协议生效之日起 45 日内,美国农业部(动植物卫生检验局)应完成中国香梨进口监管通报程序。

三、本协议生效之日起 2 个月内,美国农业部(动植物卫生检验局)应完成中国柑橘进口监管通报程序。

四、本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,美国农业部(动植物卫生检

验局)应完成中国鲜枣进口监管通报程序。

五、本协议生效之日起 7 个工作日内,中国海关总署和美国农业部(动植物卫生检验局)应签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许美国加工用鲜马铃薯输入中国。

六、本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,中国海关总署和美国农业部

(动植物卫生检验局)应签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许美国加州油桃输入中国。

七、本协议生效之日起 3 个月内,中国海关总署和美国农业部

(动植物卫生检验局)应签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许美国蓝莓输入中国。

八、本协议生效之日起 3 个月内,中国海关总署和美国农业部

(动植物卫生检验局)应签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许美国加州哈斯鳄梨输入中国。

九、本协议生效之日起 3 个月内,中国海关总署和美国农业部

(动植物卫生检验局)应签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许美国大麦输入中国。中国海关总署与美国农业部(动植物卫生检验局)协调,可以实地考察美国大麦生产情况。

十、本协议生效之日起 1 个月内,中国海关总署应与美国农业部(动植物卫生检验局)举行会议,并实地考察美国苜蓿颗粒和草

块、杏仁粕颗粒和粕块以及梯牧草干草的生产情况。中国海关总署

和美国农业部应于本协议生效之日起 3 个月内签署并实施植物卫生议定书,允许以上产品输入中国。

十一、双方确认,一方自另一方进口冷冻水果和蔬菜时不得要求出具植物卫生证书。

十二、双方应就谷物和油籽产品贸易便利化问题继续技术磋商。附录十二 饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的

干酒精糟

一、为简化程序、提高效率、促进贸易便利化,更好满足畜牧业发展的饲料需求,中国应:

(一)不以现场核查或检查作为注册工厂或批准饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料产品、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟输入中国的前提条件;

(二)不以出口议定书作为允许饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料产品、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟输入中国的前提条件;以及

(三)确保对美国饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料产品、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟的进口要求与国际标准和准则相一致。

二、每当美国向中国提供饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料产品、

干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟工厂的更新完整清单,中国应在 20

个工作日内对工厂实施注册,在中国海关总署网站公布清单,并允许中国海关总署网站上清单内美国工厂的饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料产品、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟输入中国。

三、中国应:

(一)1.在收到美国干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟制造商对中国出口审批申请 3 个月内完成申请审查;以及

2.在申请审查完成 20 个工作日内发放许可,允许该产品输入中国;以及

(二)在收到申请 20 个工作日内,若美国干酒精糟或含可溶物的干酒精糟制造商持有或曾持有一种产品输入中国许可,但该许可:

  1. 2017 1 1 日或之后失效,或
  2. 预期将在该日期后失效,向该制造商发放许可,允许该产品输入中国。

四、中国应:

(一)在收到新饲料添加剂、预混合饲料或配合饲料产品输入中国申请 9 个月内,完成申请审查,将产品列入中国饲料和饲料添加剂目录;

(二)在收到饲料添加剂、预混合饲料或配合饲料产品输入中

国新申请 3 个月内,完成申请审查并发放许可,允许产品进口;以

(三)在收到向中国出口饲料添加剂、预混合饲料或配合饲料产品续期申请 20 个工作日内发放续期许可,允许产品进口。

五、中国继续有权对美国饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟饲料安全监管体系进行核查,包括与美国相关主管部门协调核查有代表性的美国饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟工厂。核查应以风险为基础。中国继续有权在入境口岸基于风险抽取美国饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟饲料产品货物进行检查。如根据科学检查判定某批美国饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟货物违反适用饲料安全进口要求,中国可拒绝进口该批货物。如判定某工厂存在适用饲料安全措施重大违规行为,或违规行为持续或反复出现,中国可拒绝接受该工厂货物,直至问题解决。中国应就此类违规行为通报美国有关部门。双方应就饲料添加剂、预混料、配合饲料、干酒精糟和含可溶物的干酒精糟饲料安全监管体系交换信息。

附录十三 宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料一、中国应:

(一)在本协议生效之日起 1 个月内:

  1. 按照附录第四部分(牛肉)第二条内容解除对含反刍动物成

分的美国宠物食品的禁令;以及

  1. 对含反刍动物成分的美国宠物食品,取消聚合酶链式反应检测使用;对不含反刍动物成分的美国宠物食品,仅基于风险进行聚合酶链式反应抽检;

(二)本协议一经生效,允许进口含禽肉产品成分的美国宠物食品;

(三)不要求工厂在注册环节填写或提交问卷,但可要求正在接受核查的工厂填写问卷;以及

(四)允许进口含有第三国动物源成分的宠物食品,前提是该动物源成分合法进口至美国、符合美国国内宠物食品添加要求并可追溯至原产国。

二、本协议一经生效,双方应进行技术讨论,讨论美国宠物食品输入中国事宜。双方应在本协议生效之日起  2 个月内,签署美国

宠物食品输入中国议定书。新议定书签署前,中国应按照 2004 年 11

月 18 日签署的《中华人民共和国从美利坚合众国输入非反刍动物源饲料和非反刍动物源性油脂的兽医卫生议定书》规定,继续允许美国宠物食品输入中国。

三、中国已完成对美国  24 家新增宠物食品和动物饲料工厂的审

查,应在本协议生效之日起  5 个工作日内,将这些工厂加入允许输

入中国宠物食品或非反刍动物源动物饲料的工厂清单。

四、美国应每月向中国提供美国认定可对中国出口宠物食品或非反刍动物源动物饲料的工厂清单的所有更新。在收到清单的 20 个工作日内,中国应注册这些工厂,在中国海关总署网站公布变更的清单,并允许中国海关总署网站清单内美国工厂的宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料输入中国。

五、中国继续有权对美国宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料安全监管体系进行核查,包括与美国相关主管部门协调核查有代表性的美国宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料工厂。核查应以风险为基础。中国继续有权在入境口岸基于风险抽取美国宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料货物进行检查。如根据科学检查判定某批美国宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料违反适用宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料安全进口要求,中国可拒绝进口该批次产品。如判定某工厂存在适用饲料安全措施方面的重大违规行为,或违规行为持续或反复出现,中国可拒绝接受该工厂货物,直至问题解决。中国应就此类违规行为通报美国相关主管部门。双方应就宠物食品和非反刍动物源动物饲料安全监管体系交换信息。

附录十四 关税配额

一、中国应确保自 2019 年 12 月 31 日起,小麦、大米和玉米的关税配额措施应符合中国特定农产品关税配额案专家组报告及世界

贸易组织协定,包括中国在《中华人民共和国加入世贸组织议定书》

和中国第 152 号减让表第一部分第 1(B)节中的承诺。

二、中国每年小麦、大米和玉米的总体关税配额应于当年 1 月 1 日前分配至最终用户。中国应确保不抑制小麦、大米和玉米关税配额的足额使用。

三、中国对小麦、大米和玉米关税配额资格、分配、返还、再 分配和处罚的要求,不得区别对待国营贸易企业和非国营贸易企业, 并应同等适用于小麦、大米和玉米关税配额中的国营贸易配额和非 国营贸易配额。中国小麦、大米和玉米关税配额管理措施中,获得 小麦、大米和玉米关税配额分配的“最终用户”和“企业”包括国 营贸易企业。

四、中国应于每年 10 月 1 日前对未使用并返还的小麦、大米和玉米关税配额量(包括未使用并返还的分配给国营贸易企业的配额量,或定为“国营贸易配额”的配额量)进行再分配。仅有新申请者和除退回未使用小麦、大米和玉米配额的企业以外的企业,应有资格获得小麦、大米和玉米关税配额再分配量。

五、中国小麦、大米和玉米关税配额的所有分配量均应为商业可行的装运量。

六、中国应确保规定并公布小麦、大米和玉米关税配额申请条件和分配原则,分配原则应与小麦、大米和玉米关税配额管理商品

的进口、加工或销售相关。中国应确保充足数量的国营贸易企业和

非国营贸易企业实体(包括新的配额申请者)有资格获得小麦、大米和玉米关税配额分配,并确保不抑制小麦、大米和玉米关税配额的足额使用。

七、与中国的世贸组织义务相一致,中国将应美国请求,提供与小麦、大米和玉米关税配额分配和再分配相关的信息。

八、每一方如有关于小麦、大米和玉米关税配额管理的现行法律、法规和公告,应在公共网站上公开,并及时公布上述内容的变更情况。依据“双边评估和争端解决”一章,双方将应其中一方请求就关税配额管理进行磋商。

附录十五 国内支持

一、中国应尊重其世贸组织义务,在官方公报栏公布关于其国内支持计划和政策的法律、法规和其他措施。

二、为明确起见,关于中国国内支持措施,世界贸易组织《关于争端解决规则与程序的谅解》下美国享有的针对中国的权利,不受本协议限制。

附录十六 农业生物技术

一、为有助于实现农业生物技术对可持续农业发展的好处,双方同意开展农业生物技术领域交流,并有意采取措施,增进公众关

于农业生物技术参与和公众对农业生物技术相关科学信息的认知,

以增强公众对在农业和食品体系中使用安全生物技术的信心和接受程度为目的。

二、中国应为农业生物技术产品的安全性评价和审批采用透明、可预测、高效及以科学和风险为基础的监管流程。对于用作饲料或加工的农业生物技术产品,中国应大幅缩短以下两项之间的平均时间至 24 个月以内:

(一)此类产品审批正式申请的提交;以及

(二)该产品是否批准的最终决定。

中国安全评价程序应以相关国际标准以及食品法典和《国际植物保护公约》的建议为基础。中国所开展的任何安全评价应基于以恰当方式获取并以恰当统计方法分析的科学数据和信息。

三、双方应加强生物技术监管交流,以增进互相理解与便利农业生物技术产品贸易。

四、中国应:

(一)在收到农业生物技术产品用于正式批准申请而提交的申报书之日起 5 个工作日内开展完整性预审查,通过对比申请表和申报书要求,将申报书中不齐全之处告知申请人;

(二)受理申请人关于食品、饲料和加工用途农业生物技术产

品进口批准流程的申诉,并在收到合理申诉后采取整改行动;

(三)当国家农业转基因生物安全委员会需要额外信息来完成安全评价时,在确定需要额外信息的会议结束 20 个工作日内,以书面形式通知申请人提供所有此类信息,并向申请人书面解释通知提供的信息与产品既定用途下的安全性有何相关性;

(四)申请人向国家农业转基因生物安全委员会提交额外信息后,国家农业转基因生物安全委员会将尽快、以必要频率召开会议,以便完成申请审核;以及

(五)每年至少召开 2 次国家农业转基因生物安全委员会会议,并视申请数量,根据需要尽可能增加会议召开频次。

五、中国批准的农业生物技术产品有效期应不少于 5 年。

六、中国应在本协议生效之日起 12 个月内,就源于转基因微生物的食品成分审批,建立并公布一套简化、可预测、以科学和风险为基础、高效的安全评价流程。

七、中国应:

(一)全年不间断受理农业生物技术产品的批准申请;

(二)如果一农业生物技术产品的正式批准申请在向美国监管机构提交申报书后但向中国监管机构提交前,向中国提交申报书, 在收到申报书 5 个工作日内,对照该产品正式申请提交后将适用的

批准要求,开展申报书完整性预审查;

(三)在收到正式申请后启动审查该农业生物技术产品的批准申请;

(四)不要求提供对于产品既定用途下的安全性评价不必要的信息;以及

(五)对于任何通过中国安全评价的产品,在国家农业转基因生物安全委员会会议结束 20 个工作日内作出行政批准决定,并颁发生物安全证书。

八、若出现影响美国货物出口至中国的低水平混杂的情况,中国应:

(一)尽快向进口商或进口商代理告知该低水平混杂事件,以及需提交的相关补充资料,以协助中国就该低水平混杂事件的处理作出决策;

(二)向美国提交该低水平混杂事件的风险或安全评价综述;

(三)确保该低水平混杂事件的处理没有不必要的拖延;以及

(四)在决定如何处理低水平混杂事件时,考虑美国或其他国家提供的相关风险或安全评价及批准情况。

九、对于无意或者技术上无法避免的低水平混杂事件,中国应基于个案开展分析评估,尽量降低对贸易的影响。

十、双方同意组织专家对低水平混杂问题开展进一步研究,并

开展国际合作寻求解决低水平混杂的务实做法。

附录十七 食品安全

一、双方不得实施未基于科学和风险的食品安全法规或要求另一方监管部门未基于科学和风险的行动,且应只使用该法规和要求该行动以保护人类生命或健康所需程度为限。

附件 1:被认为不符合输入中国的牛肉、猪肉和禽类产品

美国法律法规要求销毁在屠宰时或屠宰后续检查中发现的患病、掺假或其他不合格的肉类和禽类胴体、分割部分及产品。美国农业 部食品安全检验局不允许已确定为不合格的,或被牛的粪便、异物、脑脊液等污染的肉类或禽类产品进入市场。表现出全身系统症状或 病理变化的动物将被销毁。美国农业部食品安全检验局公共卫生兽 医在食品安全检验局证书中证明,相关肉类或禽类产品来自已经过 宰前和宰后检验且完好健康的动物。此外,产品已依据美国农业部 法律法规进行与通过检验,且产品卫生、适宜人类食用。

以下清单列出不符合输入中国的产品,包括含下列产品的加工产品:

  1. 牛肉和猪肉:甲状腺、肾上腺、尾脂腺、扁桃体、屠宰和分割过程中暴露的主要淋巴结、喉部肌肉组织、肺、胰腺、脾脏、胆囊、子宫、毛发、蹄和泌乳乳腺;
    1. 牛角;
    2. 任何年龄牛的机械分离肉和回肠末端;

4.30 月龄及以上牛只的脑、颅、眼、三叉神经节、脊髓、背根神经节和脊柱(尾椎、胸腰椎横突、骶骨翼除外);以及

5.禽类羽毛、头部、肠和尾部。

 

2020 年 1 月 15 日

致:华盛顿哥伦比亚特区西北区 17 路 600 号 20250

美国贸易代表办公室首席农业谈判代表 格雷格·多德

尊敬的多德大使:

我谨确认中华人民共和国(中国)政府代表与美利坚合众国

(美国)政府代表达成如下一致意见:

中国不要求美国低风险食品提供证书,包括美国视为深加工且货架期稳定的所有美国食品。

另,中国应加入国际食品法典委员会食品进出口检验与认证分委会下设的食品假冒和食品真实性电子工作组。

我谨提议,本函和贵国政府确认同意该一致意见的回函应构成两国政府间协议,且受 2020 年 1 月 15 日签署的《中华人民共和国政府和美利坚合众国政府经济贸易协议》“双边评估与争端解决” 一章条款约束,并于该协议生效之日同时生效。

您诚挚的,

 

中华人民共和国

农业农村部副部长韩俊

 

2020 年 1 月 15 日

 

致: 中华人民共和国北京市农展馆南里 11 号 100125

中华人民共和国农业农村部副部长韩俊

 

尊敬的韩俊副部长:

很高兴收到您 1 月 15 日来函,内容如下:

“中国不要求美国低风险食品提供证书,包括美国视为深加工且货架期稳定的所有美国食品。

另,中国应加入国际食品法典委员会食品进出口检验与认证分委会下设的食品假冒和食品真实性电子工作组。

我谨提议,本函和贵国政府确认同意该一致意见的回函应构成 两国政府间协议,且受 2020 年 1 月 15 日签署的《中华人民共和国政府和美利坚合众国政府经济贸易协议》‘双边评估与争端解决’一章条款约束,并于该协议生效之日同时生效。”

我谨确认我国政府同意该一致意见,您的来函与本回函应构成 两国政府间协议,应受 2020 年 1 月 15 日签署的《美利坚合众国政府和中华人民共和国政府经济贸易协议》“双边评估与争端解决”一

章条款约束,并应于该协议生效之日同时生效。

您诚挚的,

 

美国贸易代表办公室首席农业谈判代表 格雷格·多德

 

2020 年 1 月 15 日

 

致:华盛顿哥伦比亚特区西北区 17 路 600 号 20250

美国贸易代表办公室首席农业谈判代表 格雷格·多德

 

尊敬的多德大使:

我谨确认中华人民共和国(中国)政府代表与美利坚合众国

(美国)政府代表达成如下一致意见:

基于中国以往对美国水产品监管体系的评估,2020 年 1 月 15

日签署的《中华人民共和国政府和美利坚合众国政府经济贸易协议》

(“经贸协议”)一经生效,中国应批准自美国进口本函附件 1 所列水产品种类。

中国在经贸协议生效之日起 5 个工作日内,应将本函附件 2 所

列 23 种美国饲料添加剂、预混料和配合饲料产品纳入中国传统贸易产品清单,允许自美进口上述饲料添加剂、预混料和配合饲料产品至中国。

我谨提议,本函和您确认贵国政府同意该一致意见的回函,应

构成两国政府间协议,且受 2020 年 1 月 15 日经贸协议的“双边评

估与争端解决”一章条款约束,并于该协议生效之日同时生效。您诚挚的,

 

中华人民共和国 农业农村部副部长韩俊

 

2020 年 1 月 15 日

 

致:中华人民共和国北京市农展馆南里 11 号 100125

中华人民共和国农业农村部副部长韩俊

 

尊敬的韩俊副部长:

很高兴收到您 2020 年 1 月 15 日来函,内容如下:

“基于中国以往对美国水产品监管体系的评估,2020 年 1 月15 日签署的《中华人民共和国政府和美利坚合众国政府经济贸易协议》(‘经贸协议’)一经生效,中国应批准自美国进口本函附件1 所列水产品种类。

中国在经贸协议生效之日起 5 个工作日内,应将本函附件 2 所

列 23 种美国饲料添加剂、预混料和配合饲料产品纳入中国传统贸易产品清单,允许自美进口上述饲料添加剂、预混料和配合饲料产品至中国。

我谨提议,本函和您确认贵国政府同意该一致意见的回函,应构成两国政府间协议,且受 2020 年 1 月 15 日经贸协议的‘双边评估与争端解决’一章条款约束,并于该协议生效之日同时生效。”

我谨确认我国政府同意该一致意见,您的来函与本回函应构成

两国政府间协议,应受 2020 年 1 月 15 日签署的《美利坚合众国政府和中华人民共和国政府经济贸易协议》“双边评估与争端解决” 一章条款约束,并应于该协议生效之日同时生效。

您诚挚的,

 

 

美国贸易代表办公室首席农业谈判代表 格雷格·多德

 

附件 1: 美国水产品种类目录

 

水产品品种名

学名

产品名称

南极磷虾

Euphausia superba

南极磷虾油

大鳞大麻哈鱼/帝王鲑

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

鱼油

大麻哈鱼

Oncorhynchus keta

鱼油

银大麻哈鱼

Oncorhynchus kisutch

鱼油

细鳞大麻哈鱼

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha

鱼油

红大麻哈鱼

Oncorhynchus nerka

鱼油

淡水石首鱼

Aplodinotus grunniens

冷冻淡水石首鱼

弓鳍鱼籽

Amia calva

冷冻弓鳍鱼籽

白滨对虾

Litopenaeus setiferus

冷冻虾

西方白对虾

Litopenaeus occidentalis

冷冻虾

斯式对虾

Litopenaeus schmitti

冷冻虾

尾棘深海鳐

Bathyraja pramifera

尾棘深海鳐

纵沟康克螺

Busycon canaliculatum

海螺肉

沟螺

Busycoptus canaliculatus

海螺肉

左旋香螺

Busycon carica

海螺肉

杂色平鲉

Sebastes variegatus

冷冻鱼片

 

黄尾平鲉

Sebastes flavidus

冷冻鱼片

寡平鲉

Sebastes entomelas

冷冻鱼片

北方平鲉

Sebastes borealis

冷冻鱼片

阿留申平鲉

Sebastes aleutianus

冷冻鱼片

美洲平鲉

Sebastes melanops

冷冻鱼片

巴氏平鲉

Sebastes babcocki

冷冻鱼片

红带平鲉

Sebastes proriger

冷冻鱼片

美洲西鲱

Alosa sapidissima

冷冻/冰鲜

阿拉斯加鳕鱼(油)

Gadus chalcogrammus

鱼油

黄线狭鳕鱼(油)

Theragra chalcogramma

鱼油

太平洋鳕鱼(油)

Merluccius productus

鱼油

 

附件 2:传统贸易产品

 

序号

No.

批准号

Register

Number

生产加工企业名称

Establishment Name

产品名称

Product

Name

产品用途

Usage of Product

原料

Raw Material

 

1

 

 

美国 ACG 产品有限公司

ACG Products Ltd., USA

 

饲料宝

Feed Bond

饲料抗结块剂Anti-caking Agent 所有动物

All animal

水合硅铝酸钠钙Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate

2

 

美国奥特奇公司

Alltech Inc., USA

奥迈乐

Optimase

饲料添加剂尿素

Feed Additive Urea

尿素

Urea

 

3

 

 

美国奥特奇公司

Alltech Inc., USA

优知乐Sow Advantage

母猪微量元素预混合饲料

Trace Mineral

Premix for Sow

 

矿物质饲料添加剂

Natural Minerals

 

4

 

美国生物系统有限公司

American Biosystems,

Inc., USA

超益

Super Dairy,

Combo

饲料添加剂

Feed Additive

酵母硒

Yeast

 

5

 

美国白尔康公司

Balchem Corporation,

USA

妞舒

NitroShure

饲料添加剂尿素

Feed Additive Urea

(Dairy cows)

尿素

Urea

 

6

 

 

美国 Biozyme 公司

BioZyme Incorporated

 

艾美福

AMAFERM

Enzyme Feed grade

养殖动物

(All species or categories of

animals)

α—淀粉酶(产自米曲霉)

α-Amylase (by Aspergillus Oryzae)

 

7

 

美国 Desert King 国际有限公司

Desert King International

Inc., USA

惠康宝-30 DK

sarsaponin- 30

饲料添加剂Feed Additive 家禽和猪

(Poultry and Swine)

天然类固醇萨洒皂角苷(源自丝兰) Yucca (Yucca

Schidigera) Extract

 

8

 

美国福蓝迪他生物集团有限公司

Frondita Biogroup, Inc.,

USA

益 加 Super DFM Plus

混合型饲料添加剂Mixed Feed Additive

微生物

Feed Additives Mixture

Live Microorganisms

 

9

 

美国国际原料公司

International Ingredient

Corporation

金乳

Gold Star

Milk

蛋白饲料

Protein feed (Piglet

and Calf)

奶粉与奶酪

Dried Milk and Dried

Cheese

 

10

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

五星宝Five Star Booster

能量饲料Energy Feed (Piglets)

糖类食品副产品

Sugar Foods By-

Product (Carbohydrates)

 

11

 

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

 

营养金奶粉

Nutri-Gold

蛋白质饲料Protein Feed (Livestock,

aquaculture and pet)

 

干奶粉

Dried Milk Powder

 

 

 

 

12

 

美国国际原料公司

International Ingredient

Corporation

奇饲粉

Cheese Plus

Cheese

能量饲料 Energy Feed (Swine and

calf)

干奶酪产品

Dried Cheese Product

 

13

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

巧饲粉Milk Chocolate Product

能量饲料Energy Feed (Swine and calf)

巧克力糖和巧克力牛奶巧饲粉

Chocolate Candy &

Dried Chocolate Milk

 

14

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

 

乳清宝

CW-11

蛋白质饲料

Protein Feed

(Piglet, pet and Aquaculture)

奶酪乳清

Whey and by-product,

Lactose and Whey Protein

 

15

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

 

奇饲粉

AF-35

奇能佳

Protein Feed

(Piglet, pet and Aquaculture)

 

奶酪粉和大豆粉 Dried Cheese and Soy Flour

 

16

 

美国国际原料公司International Ingredient Corporation

 

宝宝派

Carbo-Pal

 

饲料添加剂

Feed Additive

谷物和糖类食品副产品

cereal food and sugar

foods by-products

 

17

 

美国国际原料公司

International Ingredient

Corporation

营养派

Nutri-Pal

蛋白饲料

Protein feed

(Swine)

奶粉与酵母硒

Milk Product and

Brewers Dried Yeast

 

18

 

美国国际原料公司

International Ingredient

Corporation

百 泰 A GroBiotic A

饲料添加剂

Feed Additive

酵母硒

Yeast

 

19

 

 

美国建明工业有限公司Kemin Industries, Inc., USA

 

微生康锌 27 粉剂KemTRACE

Zinc 27 Dry

混合型饲料添加剂丙酸锌

Feed Additives Mixture Zinc

Propionate (Swine, Ruminent, Poultry)

 

丙酸锌

Zinc Propionate

 

20

 

拉曼特种益生菌公司Lallemand Specialties, Inc., USA

 

倍特赛

Bactocel

饲料添加剂

Feed Additive

(Swine, Poultry, Aquaculture)

乳酸片球菌Pediococcus acidilactici

 

21

 

美国乐斯福酵母公司乐斯福饲料添加剂 Lesaffre Feed Additives, a

division of Lesaffre Yeast Corporation, USA

 

赛福硒 3000 Selyeast 3000

 

饲料添加剂

Feed Additive

 

酵母硒

Selenium Yeast

 

22

 

美盛作物营养有限公司美盛饲料添加剂部Mosaic Global Sales, LLC Mosaic Feed Ingredients, a

Division of Mosaic Corp Nutrition, LLC

 

富磷(磷酸二氢钙) Biofos

 

矿物质饲料添加剂

Natural Mineral

 

磷酸氢钙Monocalcium Phosphate

 

 

 

 

23

 

美国金宝动物营养国际有限公司

Zinpro Animal Nutrition

International Inc, USA

氨维乐一锌

100 Availa-

Zn 100

矿物饲料添加剂Mineral Feed Additive

氨基酸锌络合物Zinc Amino Acid Complex

 

 

第四章 金融服务

第4.1条 目 标

双方认为,双方在双边服务贸易领域拥有广阔合作机遇和互惠利益。每一方请求对方确保己方的服务和服务提供者公平、有效、非歧视地参与对方市场。双方应进行建设性的工作,给予对方的服务和服务提供者公平、有效、非歧视的市场准入待遇。为此,双方应从本金融服务章节约定的行动开始,采取具体行动。

第4.2条 银行服务

一、双方都承认互利合作对于改善市场准入、加强各自银行服务具有重要意义。

二、中国承诺,在美国金融机构的合格子公司提供或寻求提供证券投资基金托管服务时,其母公司的海外资产情况应被纳入考量以满足相关资产要求。本协议生效后5个月内,中国应允许美国金融机构的分行提供证券投资基金托管服务,并应将其母公司的海外资产情况纳入考量以满足相关资产要求。中国应及时审核和批准美国金融机构提出的证券投资基金托管牌照的合格申请。

三、中国确认,美国金融机构申请成为各类非金融债务融资工具A类主承销商时,应根据修改后的发放非金融企业债务融资工具主承销商牌照的评估规则接受评估,并相应获得牌照。该规则将美

国金融机构的国际资质纳入评估考量,使该实体能够以此来满足在

华申请牌照的相关要求。

四、美国承认目前有中信集团等中国机构的申请尚未批准,确认将及时考虑此类申请。

第4.3条 信用评级服务

一、中国确认,已允许一家美国独资信用评级服务提供者对出售给国内外投资者的国内债券进行评级,包括为银行间债券市场进行评级。中国承诺继续允许美国服务提供者(包括美国独资信用评级服务提供者)对向国内外投资者出售的所有种类的国内债券进行评级。本协议生效后3个月内,中国应审核和批准美国服务提供者已提交的尚未批准的任何信用评级服务牌照申请。

二、每一方应允许对方的信用评级服务提供者在该提供者现有合资企业中获得多数股权。

三、美国确认给予中国信用评级服务提供者非歧视待遇。第4.4条 电子支付服务

一、中国在美国电子支付服务提供者,包括寻求以外商独资实体身份开展经营的提供者,提交筹建银行卡清算机构的任何相关申请后5个工作日内应予以受理,并可在这5个工作日内,一次性提出修改或补充信息的要求。在此情况下,中国在申请人对此要求作出回应后5个工作日内应受理申请。中国在受理后90个工作日内应就

该申请做出决定,包括对不利决定给予解释。

二、中国在美国服务提供者报告其已完成筹备工作后不迟于1 个月内,应受理此服务提供者的牌照申请,包括万事达、维萨或美国运通的任何牌照申请,并应就该申请做出决定,包括对不利决定给予解释。

三、美国确认给予中国电子支付服务提供者(包括银联)非歧视待遇。

第4.5条 金融资产管理(不良债务)服务

一、双方承认在不良债务服务领域存在互利互惠的机会,愿共同在该领域促成更多机会。

二、中国应允许美国金融服务提供者从省辖范围牌照开始申请资产管理公司牌照,使其可直接从中资银行收购不良贷款。中国在授予新增的全国范围牌照时,对中美金融服务提供者一视同仁,包括对上述牌照的授予。

三、美国将继续允许中国金融服务提供者在美参与不良贷款的收购和处置。

第4.6条 保险服务

一、中国不迟于2020年4月1日,应取消寿险、养老保险和健康保险领域的外资股比限制,并且允许美国独资保险公司进入上述领域。中国确认不对在中国境内设立的美资保险公司在华全资拥有保

险资产管理公司设置限制。

二、中国不迟于2020年4月1日,应取消对所有保险领域(包括保险中介)的经营范围限制、歧视性监管流程和要求,以及过于繁重的许可和经营要求,并应及时审核和批准美国金融服务提供者提交的任何保险服务牌照申请。根据上述承诺,中国确认已取消关于新设立外资保险公司30年保险业务经营资历的要求。

三、美国承认目前有中国再保险集团等中国机构的申请尚未批准,并确认将及时考虑此类申请。

第4.7条 证券、基金管理和期货服务

一、每一方应基于非歧视原则审核和批准对方金融机构的证券、基金管理或期货牌照的合格申请。双方确认对方拥有牌照的金融机构有权提供己方拥有牌照的金融机构在上述领域内获准提供的完整业务范围的服务。

二、中国不迟于2020年4月1日,应取消外资股比限制并允许美国独资的服务提供者进入证券、基金管理和期货服务领域。

三、中国确认,从2019年7月5日起大幅降低对证券服务提供者控股股东的高额资产净值要求。

四、中国确认,当现有美资参股的证券公司变为美资控制、美资控股或美资全资拥有时,允许其保留原持有牌照。

五、双方应确保不存在针对对方私募基金管理人的歧视性限

制。中国应确保不存在对美国私募基金管理人投资H股(即在港交

所上市的中国内地企业的股票)的限制,合格的美资控股私募基金管理人应可基于个案处理方式获批提供投资咨询服务。

六、双方确认在期货产品方面不存在针对对方机构的歧视性限制,包括允许对方机构投资己方国内机构获准投资的完整业务范围的期货产品(包括金融、利率和汇率期货)。

七、美国承认目前有中国国际金融股份有限公司等中国机构的申请尚未批准,并确认将及时考虑此类申请。

 

 

第五章 宏观经济政策、汇率问题和透明度

第5.1条 总 则

一、每一方应彼此尊重对方依据国内法律行使货币政策自主权。

二、双方认识到,强劲的经济基本面、稳健的政策和具有韧性的国际货币体系对于汇率稳定至关重要,从而促进强劲、可持续的经济增长和投资。实行灵活汇率制度在可行的情况下能够起到吸收冲击的作用。

三、双方共同的目标是奉行增强经济基本面,促进经济增长, 提升透明度并避免不可持续的外部失衡的政策。

四、双方应恪守各自在G20公报中关于汇率的承诺,包括避免竞争性贬值、避免将汇率用于竞争性目的。

第5.2条 汇率政策

一、每一方确认接受国际货币基金组织(IMF)协定约束,避免操纵汇率或国际货币体系以阻碍国际收支的有效调整或获得不公平的竞争优势。

二、每一方应该:

(一)实现并维持市场决定的汇率制度;以及

(二)增强经济基本面,以巩固有利于宏观经济和汇率稳定的条件。

三、双方应避免竞争性贬值,避免将汇率用于竞争性目的,包括对外汇市场进行大规模、持续、单向干预。

四、双方将保持经常沟通,并就外汇市场情况、活动与政策进行沟通协商。双方将就IMF对各自的汇率评估进行沟通协商。

第5.3条 透明度

一、双方确认按规定时间公开披露以下数据:

(一)每月结束后不迟于30天内,按照IMF关于国际储备和外币流动性的数据模板,公布每月外汇储备和远期头寸数据;

(二)每季结束后不迟于90天内,公布每季度国际收支金融账户的子项数据,包括直接投资、证券投资与其他投资(贷款与应收款);以及

(三)每季结束后90天内,公布每季度货物与服务进出口情况。

二、双方重申并应继续同意IMF公开披露以下信息:

(一)在IMF执董会议后四周内,公布IMF关于本方的第四条款磋商报告,包括对本方汇率的评估情况;以及

(二)确认加入IMF官方外汇储备货币构成调查(COFER)

数据库。

三、如果IMF未公开如本条第2段所述信息,未被公开的一方应主动要求IMF予以公开披露。

第5.4条 执行机制

一、汇率政策及透明度出现的问题,应由中国人民银行行长或美国财政部长向第七章(双边评估和争端解决)中建立的双边评估和争端解决安排提交。

二、如双方无法在双边评估和争端解决安排下达成双方满意的解决方案,中国人民银行行长或美国财政部长也可请求IMF在其职权范围内:

(一)对另一方的宏观经济和汇率政策、数据透明度以及报告情况进行严格监督;或

(二)发起正式磋商并提供适当的意见。

 

第六章  扩大贸易

第6.1条 目  标

一、双方承认,本协议以及中国正在采取的开放经济和改善贸 易体系的举措所带来的贸易和经济结构变化,将有助于扩大贸易流,  包括显著增加美国和其他国家对中国的商品和服务出口。

二、双方认为,两国贸易具有高度的互补性,扩大贸易合作有 利于改善双边贸易关系、优化资源配置、调整经济结构、促进经济 可持续发展。

 

三、双方认识到,美国生产并能够供应品质高、价格竞争力强

的商品和服务,而中国需要增加质优价廉的商品和服务的进口,以 满足中国消费者日益增长的需要。

四、双方因此寻求开展建设性合作,以改善双边贸易关系,探索采取适当举措便利贸易增长。

第6.2条 贸易机会

一、从2020年1月1日至2021年12月31日两年内,中国应确保, 如附录6.1所示,在2017年基数之上,扩大自美采购和进口制成品、农产品、能源产品和服务不少于2000亿美元。具体而言,中国应确保:

 

(一)在制成品方面,如附录6.1所示,在2017年基数之上,

 

中国2020日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于329亿美元,2021日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于448亿美元。

(二)在农产品方面,如附录6.1所示,在2017年基数之上, 中国2020日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于125亿美元,2021日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于195亿美元。

(三)在能源产品方面,如附录6.1所示,在2017年基数之上, 中国2020日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于185亿美元,2021日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于339亿美元。

(四)在服务方面,如附录6.1所示,在2017年基数之上,中国2020日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于128亿美元,2021日历年自美采购和进口规模不少于251亿美元。

二、双方应视情明确附录6.1中二级目录产品的采购和进口增加额。

三、双方预测,从2022日历年至2025日历年,中国自美采购和进口制成品、农产品、能源产品和服务将继续保持增长方向。

四、美国应确保采取适当举措,以便有足够的美国商品和服务供中国采购和进口。

五、双方承认,将基于市场价格和商业考虑开展采购活动。而且在特定年份,市场状况可能会影响采购的时点,尤其是在农产品采购方面。

六、中美两国的官方贸易数据应用于判定本章节是否得到落实。

如果基于各自贸易数据分析得出相互矛盾的评价,双方应就此进行 磋商。

七、如中国认为其落实本章节义务的能力受到美国采取或未采取行动或美国内其他情况的影响,中国有权提出与美国进行磋商。

 

附录6.1 美国未来两年增加的对中国出口

单位:十亿美元

 

产品目录

基于2017基年的美国对中国出口增量

第一年

第二年

两年合计

一、制成品

32.9

44.8

77.7

1

工业机械

 

 

 

2

电气设备和机械

 

 

 

3

药品

 

 

 

4

飞机(订单及交付)

 

 

 

5

汽车

 

 

 

6

光学设备和医疗设备

 

 

 

7

钢材

 

 

 

8

其他制成品1

 

 

 

二、农产品2

12.5

19.5

32.0

9

油料种子

 

 

 

10

肉类

 

 

 

11

谷物

 

 

 

12

棉花

 

 

 

13

其他农产品3

 

 

 

14

水海产品4

 

 

 

三、能源产品

18.5

33.9

52.4

15

液化天然气

 

 

 


1 包括太阳能级多晶硅和其他有机与无机化学品、硬木木材、芯片(在美生产) 和化学品。

2 应美国请求,中国除此处列出的最低额外,在本章节覆盖范围内,将每年尽量增加50亿美元的农产品进口。

3 包括所有其他农产品,例如苜蓿草、柑橘、乳制品、膳食补充剂、蒸馏酒精、干酒糟、香精油、乙醇、新鲜胡萝卜、水果和蔬菜、人参、宠物食品、加工食品、坚果和酒。

4 包括龙虾。

 

16

原油

 

 

 

17

石化产品

 

 

 

18

煤炭5

 

 

 

四、服务6

12.8

25.1

37.9

19

知识产权使用费

 

 

 

20

商务旅行和旅游

 

 

 

21

金融服务和保险

 

 

 

22

其他服务

 

 

 

23

云和相关服务

 

 

 

总额

76.7

123.3

200.0


5 包括炼焦煤。

6   除金融服务、保险和云服务外,所有服务数据表示跨境服务供给(模式1金融服务、保险和云服务数据包括跨境服务供给和通过商业存在提供的服务供给(模式3

 

本附件只以英文作准;在双方完成并核实共同认可的中文译文 后,该中文文本与英文文本应同等作准。

 

第七章 双边评估和争端解决

第7.1条 双边评估和争端解决安排

一、为确保本协议得到迅速有效履行,双方建立以下双边评估和争端解决安排(“本安排”)。

二、本安排的目标和任务是有效履行本协议,以公平、快速和秉持尊重的方式,解决双边经贸关系中的问题,避免经贸纠纷及其影响升级扩散至双边关系的其他领域。双方认识到就此加强双边沟通的重要性。

第7.2条 本安排架构

一、高层参与。双方应建立“贸易框架小组”,应由中国国务院分管副总理和美国贸易代表牵头,以讨论本协议的落实情况。“贸易框架小组”应讨论:

(一)本协议整体落实情况;

(二)协议履行方面的重大问题;

(三)双方未来工作安排。

双方应恢复宏观经济会议,以讨论综合性经济问题,应由中国国务院分管副总理和美国财政部长牵头。双方应尽一切努力确保

“贸易框架小组”会议和宏观经济会议都高效,以解决问题为导向。

二、日常工作。本安排应包括各自设立的“双边评估和争端解决办公室”。

(一)中国应在国务院分管副总理领导下,设立中国的“双边评估和争端解决办公室”,指定一位副部长作为牵头人。美国设立的“双边评估和争端解决办公室”,应由一位副贸易代表作为牵头人;

(二)每一方应指定一位官员(“指定官员”)协助本安排的工作。在本协议生效日前,每一方应提供各自指定官员的联系方式。每一方应视需要更新相关信息;

(三)“双边评估和争端解决办公室”应:一是评估本协议履 行相关的具体问题;二是接受任何一方提交的与协议履行相关的申 诉;三是尝试通过磋商解决争端。为开展相关工作,各自的“双边 评估和争端解决办公室”可以向具有相关专业能力的政府部门咨询。

第7.3条 信息请求

一方可在会议中或会议前,请求另一方就本协议履行相关事项提供信息。另一方应提供含有所需信息的书面回复。一方如果无法提供所请求的信息,应在回复中具体解释无法在时限内提供该信息的原因,并明确将提供该信息的具体时间。本条款应不要求一方向另一方提供保密信息。

第7.4条 争端解决

一、申诉。如一方(“申诉方”)认为另一方(“被申诉方”) 的行为不符合本协议,申诉方可向被申诉方的“双边评估和争端解决办公室”提出申诉(“申诉”)。申诉应以书面形式提出,并应包含足够信息以使被申诉方能够对事项进行适当评估。申诉可以但不必要包含,能够识别涉事公司的信息或商业保密信息。申诉及任何相关信息或事项均属保密,未经双方同意,不得与“双边评估和争端解决办公室”之外的其他人分享。

二、申诉范围。

(一)本协议生效后出现的所有问题,均可提交争端解决程序;

(二)一方在本协议生效前采取的措施,包括一项行动,如在本协议生效后得到保留或持续存在影响,也适用争端解决程序。如果申诉涉及此类措施,申诉方应向被申诉方提交相关措施持续存在影响的说明。

三、评估。被申诉方应启动并完成对申诉的评估。被申诉方应考虑申诉所涉问题的事实、性质和严重程度。评估完成后,指定官员应启动磋商。

四、争端解决程序。双方将按照以下程序,以最高效的方式尝试解决申诉:

(一)如果指定官员未能解决申诉,可将该项关注提交至中国

指定的副部长和美国指定的副贸易代表处理。如果申诉在副部级层

面未被解决,申诉方可将该问题提交至中国国务院分管副总理和美国贸易代表;

(二)如果中国国务院分管副总理和美国贸易代表举行的会议未解决申诉方关注,双方应就申诉方所受损害或损失的回应快速进行磋商。如果双方就上述回应达成共识,该回应应得到履行。如果双方未就上述回应达成共识,申诉方出于防止局势升级、维护正常双边贸易关系的目的,基于磋商中提供的事实,可能求助于采取行动,包括停止其在本协议下的某一义务,或采取其认为适当的、以相称的方式实施的补救措施。在申诉方行动生效日之前,被申诉方可启动中国国务院分管副总理和美国贸易代表之间的紧急会议。如被申诉方认为申诉方依照本项采取的行动基于善意,被申诉方不会采取反制措施,或否则挑战相关行动。如被申诉方认为申诉方的行动基于恶意,其救济手段是向申诉方提交书面通知退出本协议。

五、尽管有本条第四款第(一)项的规定,如中国国务院分管副总理或美国贸易代表认为某一履行问题是紧急事项,他们其中一位可在双方的会议上直接提出该事项,而无需先在较低级别的会议上进行讨论。如果无法为此及时召开上述会议,申诉方可依照本条第四款第(二)项求助于采取行动。

第 7.5 条 履行期限

本安排与本协议应同步生效,有效期与本协议应相同。双方可

在“贸易框架小组”会议上对本安排进行评估,并讨论对本安排如

有的必要调整。

第 7.6 条 其 他

一、双方确认各自在世贸组织协定和其他共同参加的协定项下相互间的现有权利和义务。

二、如因自然灾害或其他双方不可控的不可预料情况,导致一方延误,无法及时履行本协议的义务,双方应进行磋商。

 

 

附件:

 

双边评估和争端解决安排工作流程

 

会议安排

一、“贸易框架小组”会议应每6个月举行1次。二、宏观经济会议应定期举行。

三、每一方“双边评估和争端解决办公室”负责人应每季度举行1次会议。

四、每一方指定官员至少应每月举行1次会议。

五、本协议生效后最初2年,可适当提高上述会议的频次。会议可当面进行,或可通过双方可用的其他方式进行。

对信息请求的回应

按照第7.3条,在一方请求提供信息之日起15个工作日内,另一方应予回复。

争端解决时限

一、按照第7.4条第三款,被申诉方应在收到申诉之日起10个工作日内,启动并完成对申诉的评估。

二、按照第7.4条第四款第(一)项:

(一)指定官员应在收到申诉之日起21个日历日内达成解决方

案。

(二)如果指定官员未解决申诉,中国指定的副部长和美国指定的副贸易代表应在收到申诉之日起45个日历日内达成解决方案。

(三)如果申诉在副部级层面未得到解决,且申诉方将其提交至中国国务院分管副总理和美国贸易代表,上述官员应在申诉方提请召开会议之日起的30个日历日内举行会议。

三、按照第7.4条第五款,如中国国务院分管副总理或美国贸易代表提请就紧急事项召开会议,会议应在收到该提请之日起30 个日历日内召开。

四、双方可书面同意延长本附件所列时限。

五、本附件有关工作日期按照被申诉方政府的官方日历计算。

 

第八章  最终条款

第 8.1 条  附件、附录和脚注

本协议附件、附录和脚注均为本协议的组成部分。

第 8.2 条 修 订

一、双方可以经书面同意修订本协议。

二、修订应当自双方相互书面通知已按照各自国内适用程序批准相关修订 60 日后生效,或双方同意的其他日期起生效。

第 8.3 条 生效和终止

一、本协议应自双方签字后30日内或双方相互书面通知已完成各自国内适用程序之日起生效,二者以孰早为准。

二、任何一方可通过向另一方提供书面终止通知终止本协议。该终止应自一方向另一方提供书面通知之日后 60 日起生效,或双方同意的其他日期起生效。

第 8.4 条  进一步谈判

双方将就进一步谈判的时间达成一致。

第 8.5 条 关于实施措施的通知和公开征求意见

 

 

除非本协议另有规定,每一方应为实施本协议拟采取的所有建

议措施提供不少于 45 天的公众评论期。每一方为实施本协议所采取的最终措施或对现有措施的修订,应考虑另一方提出的关切。

第 8.6 条 作准文本

本协议以中文和英文写成,两种文本同等作准。 下列代表经各自政府授权签署本协议,以昭信守。

本协议一式两份,于二〇二〇年一月十五日在华盛顿哥伦比亚特区签署。

 

中华人民共和国政府                            美利坚合众国政府代表                                                      代表

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ECONOMIC AND TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

 

 

 

PREAMBLE

 

 

The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People’s Republic of China (collectively the “Parties”),

 

RECOGNIZING the importance of their bilateral economic and trade relationship;

 

REALIZING that it is in the interests of both countries that trade grow and that there is adherence to international norms so as to promote market-based outcomes;

 

CONVINCED of the benefits of contributing to the harmonious development and expansion of world trade and providing a catalyst to broader international cooperation;

 

ACKNOWLEDGING the existing trade and investment concerns that have been identified by the Parties; and

 

RECOGNIZING the desirability of resolving existing and any future trade and investment concerns as constructively and expeditiously as possible,

 

HAVE AGREED as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 1 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Section A:  General Obligations

 

The United States recognizes the importance of intellectual property protection. China recognizes the importance of establishing and implementing a comprehensive legal system of intellectual property protection and enforcement as it transforms from a major intellectual property consumer to a major intellectual property producer. China believes that enhancing intellectual property protection and enforcement is in the interest of building an innovative country, growing innovation-driven enterprises, and promoting high quality economic growth.

 

Article 1.1:

 

China and the United States hereby affirm that they undertake provisions with respect to intellectual property, as set forth in Sections A through K.

 

Article 1.2:

 

The Parties shall ensure fair, adequate, and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. Each Party shall ensure fair and equitable market access to persons of the other Party that rely upon intellectual property protection.

 

 

Section B: Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information

 

The United States emphasizes trade secret protection. China regards trade secret protection as a core element of optimizing the business environment. The Parties agree to ensure effective protection for trade secrets and confidential business information and effective enforcement against the misappropriation of such information.1

 

 


1          The Parties agree that the term “confidential business information” concerns or relates to the trade secrets, processes, operations, style of works, or apparatus, or to the production, business transactions, or logistics, customer information, inventories, or amount or source of any income, profits, losses, or expenditures of any person, natural or legal, or other information of commercial value, the disclosure of which is likely to have the effect of causing substantial harm to the competitive position of such person from which the information was obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article 1.3:     Scope of Actors Liable for Trade Secret Misappropriation

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure that all natural or legal persons can be subject to liability for trade secret misappropriation.

 

  1. China shall define “operators” in trade secret misappropriation to include all natural persons, groups of persons, and legal persons.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.4:     Scope of Prohibited Acts Constituting Trade Secret Misappropriation

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure that the scope of prohibited acts subject to liability for trade secret misappropriation provides full coverage for methods of trade secret theft.

 

  1. China shall enumerate additional acts constituting trade secret misappropriation, especially:

 

(a)                electronic intrusions;

 

(b)               breach or inducement of a breach of duty not to disclose information that is secret or intended to be kept secret; and

 

(c)                unauthorized disclosure or use that occurs after the acquisition of a trade secret under circumstances giving rise to a duty to protect the trade secret from disclosure or to limit the use of the trade secret.

 

  1. China and the United States agree to strengthen cooperation on trade secret protection.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.5:     Burden-Shifting in a Civil Proceeding

 

  1. The Parties shall provide that the burden of production of evidence or burden of proof, as appropriate, shifts to the accused party in a civil judicial proceeding for trade secret

misappropriation where the holder of a trade secret has produced prima facie evidence, including

 

 

 

 

 

circumstantial evidence, of a reasonable indication of trade secret misappropriation by the accused party.

 

  1. China shall provide that:

 

(a)                the burden of proof or burden of production of evidence, as appropriate, shifts to the accused party to show that it did not misappropriate a trade secret once a holder of a trade secret produces:

 

(i)                 evidence that the accused party had access or opportunity to obtain a trade secret and the information used by the accused party is materially the same as that trade secret;

 

(ii)               evidence that a trade secret has been or risks being disclosed or used by the accused party; or

 

(iii)             other evidence that its trade secret(s) were misappropriated by the accused party; and

 

(b)                under the circumstance that the right holder provides preliminary evidence that measures were taken to keep the claimed trade secret confidential, the burden of proof or burden of production of evidence, as appropriate, shifts to the accused party to show that a trade secret identified by a holder is generally known among persons within the circles that normally deal with the kind of information in question or is readily accessible, and therefore is not a trade secret.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.6:     Provisional Measures to Prevent the Use of Trade Secrets

 

  1. The Parties shall provide for prompt and effective provisional measures to prevent the use of misappropriated trade secrets.

 

  1. China shall identify the use or attempted use of claimed trade secret information as an “urgent situation” that provides its judicial authorities the authority to order the grant of a preliminary injunction based on the specific facts and circumstances of a case.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article 1.7:     Threshold for Initiating Criminal Enforcement

 

  1. The Parties shall eliminate any requirement that the holder of a trade secret establish actual losses as a prerequisite to initiation of a criminal investigation for misappropriation of a trade secret.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                as an interim step, clarify that “great loss” as a threshold for criminal enforcement under the trade secret provision in the relevant law can be fully shown by remedial costs, such as those incurred to mitigate damage to business operations or planning or to re-secure computer or other systems, and substantially lower all the thresholds for initiating criminal enforcement; and

 

(b)                as a subsequent step, eliminate in all applicable measures any requirement that the holder of a trade secret establish actual losses as a prerequisite to initiation of a criminal investigation for misappropriation of a trade secret.

 

Article 1.8:     Criminal Procedures and Penalties

 

  1. The Parties shall provide for the application of criminal procedures and penalties to address willful trade secret misappropriation.

 

  1. China’s criminal procedures and penalties shall at least encompass cases of trade secret misappropriation through theft, fraud, physical or electronic intrusion for an unlawful

purpose, and the unauthorized or improper use of a computer system in the scope of prohibited acts.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.9:     Protecting Trade Secrets and Confidential Business Information from Unauthorized Disclosure by Government Authorities

 

  1. To further strengthen the protection of trade secrets, as well as better encourage

various enterprises to innovate, China shall prohibit the unauthorized disclosure of undisclosed information, trade secrets, or confidential business information by government personnel or third party experts or advisors in any criminal, civil, administrative, or regulatory proceedings

 

 

 

 

 

conducted at either the central or sub-central levels of government in which such information is submitted.

 

  1. China shall require administrative agencies and other authorities at all levels to:

 

(a)                limit requests for information to no more than necessary for the legitimate exercise of investigative or regulatory authority;

 

(b)                limit access to submitted information to only government personnel necessary for the exercise of legitimate investigative or regulatory functions;

 

(c)                ensure the security and protection of submitted information;

 

(d)                ensure that no third party experts or advisors who compete with the submitter of the information or have any actual or likely financial interest in the result of the investigative or regulatory process have access to such information;

 

(e)                establish a process for persons seeking an exemption from disclosure and a mechanism for challenging disclosures to third parties; and

 

(f)                 provide criminal, civil, and administrative penalties, including monetary fines, the suspension or termination of employment, and, as part of the final measures amending the relevant laws, imprisonment, for the unauthorized disclosure of a trade secret or confidential business information that shall deter such unauthorized disclosure.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

Section C: Pharmaceutical-Related Intellectual Property

 

Pharmaceuticals are a matter concerning people’s life and health, and there continues to be a need for finding new treatments and cures, such as for cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, among others. To promote innovation and cooperation in the pharmaceutical sector and to better meet the needs of patients, the Parties shall provide for effective protection and enforcement of pharmaceutical-related intellectual property rights, including patents and undisclosed test or other data submitted as a condition of marketing approval.

 

 

 

 

 

Article 1.10: Consideration of Supplemental Data

 

  1. China shall permit pharmaceutical patent applicants to rely on supplemental data to satisfy relevant requirements for patentability, including sufficiency of disclosure and inventive step, during patent examination proceedings, patent review proceedings, and judicial proceedings.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.11: Effective Mechanism for Early Resolution of Patent Disputes

 

  1. If China permits, as a condition of approving the marketing of a pharmaceutical product, including a biologic, persons, other than the person originally submitting the safety and efficacy information, to rely on evidence or information concerning the safety and efficacy of a product that was previously approved, such as evidence of prior marketing approval by China or in another territory, China shall provide:

 

(a)                a system to provide notice to a patent holder, licensee, or holder of marketing approval, that such other person is seeking to market that product during the term of an applicable patent claiming the approved product or its approved method of use;

 

(b)                adequate time and opportunity for such a patent holder to seek, prior to the marketing of an allegedly infringing product, available remedies in subparagraph (c); and

 

(c)                procedures for judicial or administrative proceedings and expeditious remedies, such as preliminary injunctions or equivalent effective provisional measures, for the timely resolution of disputes concerning the validity or infringement of an applicable patent claiming an approved pharmaceutical product or its approved method of use.

 

  1. China shall establish a nationwide system for pharmaceutical products consistent with paragraph 1, including by providing a cause of action to allow the patent holder, licensee, or holder of marketing approval to seek, prior to the marketing approval of an allegedly infringing product, civil judicial proceedings and expeditious remedies for the resolution of disputes concerning the validity or infringement of an applicable patent. China may also provide for administrative proceedings for the resolution of such disputes.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

Section D: Patents Article 1.12: Effective Patent Term Extension

  1. The Parties shall provide patent term extensions to compensate for unreasonable delays that occur in granting the patent or during pharmaceutical product marketing approvals.

 

  1. China shall provide that:

 

(a)                China, at the request of the patent owner, shall extend the term of a patent to compensate for unreasonable delays, not attributable to the applicant, that occur in granting the patent. For purposes of this provision, an unreasonable delay shall at least include a delay in the issuance of the patent of more than four years from the date of filing of the application in China, or three years after a request for examination of the application, whichever is later.

 

(b)                With respect to patents covering a new pharmaceutical product that is approved for marketing in China and methods of making or using a new pharmaceutical product that is approved for marketing in China, China, at the request of the patent owner, shall make available an adjustment of the patent term or the term of the patent rights of a patent covering a new product, its approved method of use, or a method of making the product to compensate the patent owner for unreasonable curtailment of the effective patent term as a result of the marketing approval process related to the first commercial use of that product in China. Any such adjustment shall confer all of the exclusive rights, subject to the same limitations and exceptions, of the patent claims of the product, its method of use, or its method of manufacture in the originally issued patent as applicable to the approved product and the approved method of use of the product. China may limit such adjustments to no more than five years and may limit the resulting effective patent term to no more than 14 years from the date of marketing approval in China.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

 

 

 

Section E: Piracy and Counterfeiting on E-Commerce Platforms

 

In order to promote the development of e-commerce, China and the United States shall strengthen cooperation and jointly and individually combat infringement and counterfeiting in the e-commerce market. The Parties shall reduce piracy and counterfeiting, including by reducing barriers, if any, to making legitimate content available in a timely manner to consumers and eligible for copyright protection, and providing effective enforcement against e-commerce platforms.

 

Article 1.13: Combating Online Infringement

 

  1. China shall provide enforcement procedures that permit effective and expeditious action by right holders against infringement that occurs in the online environment, including an effective notice and takedown system to address infringement.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                require expeditious takedowns;

 

(b)               eliminate liability for erroneous takedown notices submitted in good faith;

 

(c)                extend to 20 working days the deadline for right holders to file a judicial or administrative complaint after receipt of a counter-notification; and

 

(d)               ensure validity of takedown notices and counter-notifications, by requiring relevant information for notices and counter-notifications and penalizing notices and counter-notifications submitted in bad faith.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. enforcement procedures permit action by right holders for infringement that occurs in the online environment.

 

  1. The Parties agree to further cooperate, as appropriate, to combat infringement.

 

Article 1.14: Infringement on Major E-Commerce Platforms

 

  1. The Parties shall combat the prevalence of counterfeit or pirated goods on e-commerce platforms by taking effective action with respect to major e-commerce platforms that fail to take necessary measures against the infringement of intellectual property rights.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. China shall provide that e-commerce platforms may have their operating licenses revoked for repeated failures to curb the sale of counterfeit or pirated goods.

 

  1. The United States affirms that it is studying additional means to combat the sale of counterfeit or pirated goods.

 

 

Section F: Geographical Indications

 

The Parties shall ensure full transparency and procedural fairness with respect to the protection of geographical indications, including safeguards for generic2 terms (also known as common names), respect for prior trademark rights, and clear procedures to allow for opposition and cancellation, as well as fair market access for exports of a Party relying on trademarks or the use of generic terms.

 

Article 1.15: Geographical Indications and International Agreements

 

  1. China shall ensure that any measures taken in connection with pending or future requests from any other trading partner for recognition or protection of a geographical indication pursuant to an international agreement do not undermine market access for U.S. exports to China of goods and services using trademarks and generic terms.

 

  1. China shall give its trading partners, including the United States, necessary opportunities to raise disagreement about enumerated geographical indications in lists, annexes, appendices, or side letters, in any such agreement with another trading partner.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.16: General Market Access-related GI Concerns

 

  1. China shall ensure that:

 

(a)    competent authorities, when determining whether a term is generic in China, take into account how consumers understand the term in China, including as indicated by the following:

 

 

 


2 The term “generic” may be deemed by a Party to be synonymous with “a term customary in the common language as the common name for the associated good.”

 

 

 

 

 

(i)                 competent sources such as dictionaries, newspapers, and relevant websites;

 

(ii)               how the good referenced by the term is marketed and used in trade in China;

 

(iii)             whether the term is used, as appropriate, in relevant standards to refer to a type or class of goods in China, such as pursuant to a standard promulgated by the Codex Alimentarius; and

 

(iv)             whether the good in question is imported into China, in significant quantities, from a place other than the territory identified in the application or petition, and in a way that will not mislead the public about its place of origin, and whether those imported goods are named by the term, and

 

(b)    any geographical indication, whether granted or recognized pursuant to an international agreement or otherwise, may become generic over time, and may be subject to cancellation on that basis.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.17: Multi-Component Terms

 

  1. Each Party shall ensure that an individual component of a multi-component term that is protected as a geographical indication in the territory of a Party shall not be protected in that Party if that individual component is generic.

 

  1. When China provides geographical indication protection to a multi-component term, it shall publicly identify which individual components, if any, are not protected.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

Section G: Manufacture and Export of Pirated and Counterfeit Goods

 

Pirated and counterfeit goods severely undermine the interests of the general public and harm right holders in both China and the United States. The Parties shall take sustained and

 

 

 

 

 

effective action to stop the manufacture and to block the distribution of pirated and counterfeit products, including those with a significant impact on public health or personal safety.

 

Article 1.18: Counterfeit Medicines

 

  1. The Parties shall take effective and expeditious enforcement action against counterfeit pharmaceutical and related products containing active pharmaceutical ingredients, bulk chemicals, or biological substances.

 

  1. Measures China shall take include:

 

(a)               taking effective and expeditious enforcement action against the related products of counterfeit medicines and biologics, including active pharmaceutical ingredients, bulk chemicals, and biological substances;

 

(b)               sharing with the United States the registration information of pharmaceutical raw material sites that have been inspected by Chinese regulatory authorities and that comply with the requirements of Chinese laws and regulations, as well as any necessary information of relevant enforcement inspections; and

 

(c)               publishing online annually, beginning within six months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the data on enforcement measures, including seizures, revocations of business licenses, fines, and other actions taken by the National Medical Products Administration, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, or any successor entity.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford effective and expeditious action against counterfeit pharmaceutical and related products.

 

Article 1.19: Counterfeit Goods with Health and Safety Risks

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure sustained and effective action to stop the manufacture and distribution of counterfeit products with a significant impact on public health or personal safety.

 

  1. Measures China shall take include significantly increasing the number of enforcement actions within three months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, and publishing data online on the measurable impact of these actions each quarter, beginning within four months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The Parties shall endeavor, as appropriate, to strengthen cooperation to combat counterfeit goods that pose health and safety risks.

 

Article 1.20: Destruction of Counterfeit Goods

 

  1. With respect to border measures, the Parties shall provide that:

 

(a)    goods that have been suspended from release by its customs authorities on grounds that they are counterfeit or pirated, and that have been seized and forfeited as pirated or counterfeit, shall be destroyed, except in exceptional circumstances;

 

(b)    the simple removal of a counterfeit trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient to permit the release of the goods into the channels of commerce; and

 

(c)    in no event shall the competent authorities have discretion, except in exceptional circumstances, to permit the exportation of counterfeit or pirated goods or to subject such goods to other customs procedures.

 

  1. With respect to civil judicial procedures, the Parties shall provide that:

 

(a)    at the right holder’s request, goods that have been found to be pirated or counterfeit shall be destroyed, except in exceptional circumstances;

 

(b)    at the right holder’s request, its judicial authorities shall order that materials and implements that have been predominantly used in the manufacture or creation of such pirated or counterfeit goods be, without compensation of any sort, promptly destroyed or, in exceptional circumstances and without compensation of any sort, disposed of outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to minimize the risks of further infringements;

 

(c)    the simple removal of a counterfeit trademark unlawfully affixed shall not be sufficient to permit the release of goods into the channels of commerce; and

 

(d)    at the right holder’s request, its judicial authorities shall order a counterfeiter to pay right holders the profits from infringement or damages adequate to compensate for the injury from the infringement.

 

  1. With respect to criminal procedures, the Parties shall provide that:

 

 

 

 

 

(a)    its judicial authorities, except in exceptional cases, shall order the forfeiture and destruction of all counterfeit or pirated goods and any articles consisting of a counterfeit mark to be affixed to goods;

 

(b)    its judicial authorities, except in exceptional cases, shall order the forfeiture and destruction of materials and implements that have been predominantly used in the creation of pirated or counterfeit goods;

 

(c)    forfeiture and destruction shall occur without compensation of any kind to the defendant; and

 

(d)    its judicial or other competent authorities shall keep an inventory of goods and other material proposed to be destroyed, and these authorities shall have the discretion to temporarily exempt these materials from the destruction order to facilitate the preservation of evidence on notice by the right holder that it wishes to bring a civil or administrative case against the defendant or any third-party infringer.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.21: Border Enforcement Actions

 

  1. The Parties shall endeavor to strengthen enforcement cooperation with a view to reducing the amount of counterfeit and pirated goods, including those that are exported or in transit.

 

  1. China shall provide a sustained increase in the number of trained personnel to inspect, detain, seize, effect administrative forfeiture, and otherwise execute customs’ enforcement authority against counterfeit and pirated goods, with an emphasis on counterfeit and pirated goods that are exported or in transit. Measures China shall take include significantly increasing training of relevant customs enforcement personnel within nine months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. China also shall significantly increase the number of enforcement actions beginning within three months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, and publishing online quarterly updates of enforcement actions.

 

  1. The Parties agree to carry out cooperation with respect to border enforcement as appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

Article 1.22: Enforcement at Physical Markets

 

  1. The Parties shall take sustained and effective action against copyright and trademark infringement at physical markets.

 

  1. Measures China shall take include significantly increasing the number of enforcement actions beginning within four months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, and publishing online quarterly updates of enforcement actions at physical markets.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford effective enforcement against copyright and trademark infringement at physical markets.

 

Article 1.23: Unlicensed Software

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure that all government agencies and all entities that the government owns or controls install and use only licensed software.

 

  1. Measures China shall take include requiring annual audits by qualified third parties of China with no government ownership or affiliation and the publication online of the audit results, beginning within seven months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures require government agencies and contractors to install and use only licensed software.

 

 

Section H: Bad-Faith Trademarks

 

Article 1.24:

 

With a view to strengthening trademark protection, the Parties shall ensure

adequate and effective protection and enforcement of trademark rights, particularly against bad faith trademark registrations.

 

Article 1.25:

 

The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Section.

 

 

 

 

 

Section I: Judicial Enforcement and Procedure in Intellectual Property Cases Article 1.26: Transfer from Administrative Enforcement to Criminal Enforcement

  1. China shall require the administrative authorities to transfer a case for criminal enforcement, if, under an objective standard, there is “reasonable suspicion” based on articulable facts that a criminal violation of an intellectual property right has occurred.

 

  1. The United States affirms that U.S. authorities have the authority to refer appropriate cases for criminal enforcement.

 

Article 1.27: Deterrent-Level Penalties

 

  1. The Parties shall provide civil remedies and criminal penalties sufficient to deter future intellectual property theft or infringements.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                as an interim step, deter future intellectual property theft or infringements and strengthen the application of existing remedies and penalties by imposing a heavier punishment at or near the statutory maximum permitted under its laws related to intellectual property to deter intellectual property theft or infringements; and

 

(b)                as a subsequent step, increase the range of minimum and maximum pre- established damages, sentences of imprisonment, and monetary fines to deter future intellectual property theft or infringements.

 

  1. The United States shall endeavor, as appropriate, to strengthen communication and cooperation with China under the bilateral Intellectual Property Criminal Enforcement Working Group and to consider opportunities for more experience-sharing and pragmatic cooperation regarding criminal enforcement of intellectual property rights.

 

Article 1.28: Enforcement of Judgments

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure expeditious enforcement of any fine, penalty, payment of monetary damages, injunction, or other remedy for a violation of an intellectual property right ordered in a final judgment by its own court.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Measures China shall take include executing work guidelines and implementation plans to ensure expeditious enforcement of judgments, publishing its work guidelines and implementation plans within one month after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, as well as publishing online quarterly reports of implementation results.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford expeditious enforcement of judgments, including those pertaining to violations of intellectual property rights.

 

Article 1.29: Enforcement of Copyright and Related Rights

 

  1. In civil, administrative, and criminal proceedings involving copyright or related rights, the Parties shall:

 

(a)                provide for a legal presumption that, in the absence of proof to the contrary, the person whose name is indicated as the author, producer, performer, or publisher of the work, performance, or phonogram in the usual manner is the designated right holder in such work, performance, or phonogram and that the copyright or related right subsists in such subject matter;

 

(b)                when the presumption in subparagraph (a) holds, waive requirements to present copyright or related rights transfer agreements or other documentation in order to establish ownership, licensing, or infringement of copyright or related rights, in the absence of rebuttal evidence presented by the accused infringer; and

 

(c)                provide that the accused infringer has the burden of production of evidence or burden of proof, as appropriate, to demonstrate that its use of a work protected by copyright or related rights is authorized, including in a case where the accused infringer claims to have obtained permission to use the work, such as through a license, from the right holder.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.30: Document Authentication (“Consularization”)

 

  1. In civil judicial procedures, the Parties shall not require formalities to authenticate evidence, including requiring a consular official’s seal or chop, that can be introduced or authenticated through stipulation, or witness testimony under penalty of perjury.

 

  1. For evidence that cannot be introduced or authenticated through stipulation, or witness

 

 

 

 

 

testimony under penalty of perjury, China shall streamline notarization and authentication procedures.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

Article 1.31: Witness Testimony

 

  1. In civil judicial proceedings, China shall afford a party a reasonable opportunity to present witnesses or experts in its case and cross-examine any witness testifying in the proceeding.

 

  1. The United States affirms that existing U.S. measures afford treatment equivalent to that provided for in this Article.

 

 

Section J: Bilateral Cooperation on Intellectual Property Protection Article 1.32:

Cooperation activities and initiatives undertaken in connection with the intellectual property chapter of this Agreement shall be subject to the availability of resources, and on request, and on terms and conditions mutually agreed upon between the Parties.

 

Article 1.33:

 

The Parties agree to strengthen bilateral cooperation on the protection of intellectual property rights and promote pragmatic cooperation in this area. China National

Intellectual Property Administration and the United States Patent and Trademark Office will discuss biennial cooperation work plans in the area of intellectual property, including joint programs, industry outreach, information and expert exchanges, regular interaction through meetings and other communications, and public awareness.

 

 

 

 

 

Section K:  Implementation

 

Article 1.34:

 

Each Party shall determine the appropriate method of implementing the provisions of this Agreement within its own system and practice. If necessary, each Party shall provide suggestions for the amendment of laws to its legislative body according to its domestic legislation procedure. Consistent with the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter, each Party shall ensure that its obligations under this Agreement are fully implemented.

 

Article 1.35:

 

Within 30 working days after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China will promulgate an Action Plan to strengthen intellectual property protection aimed at promoting its high-quality growth. This Action Plan shall include, but not be limited to, measures that China will take to implement its obligations under this Chapter and the date by which each measure will go into effect.

 

Article 1.36:

 

The United States affirms that its existing measures are consistent with its obligations in this Chapter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

The Parties affirm the importance of ensuring that the transfer of technology occurs on voluntary, market-based terms and recognize that forced technology transfer is a significant concern. The Parties further recognize the importance of undertaking steps to address these issues, in light of the profound impact of technology and technological change on the world economy.

 

To enhance mutual trust and cooperation between the Parties with respect to technology issues, protect intellectual property, promote trade and investment, and establish a foundation for addressing long-standing structural concerns, the Parties have agreed as follows:

 

Article 2.1: General Obligations

 

  1. Natural or legal persons (“persons”) of a Party shall have effective access to and be able to operate openly and freely in the jurisdiction of the other Party without any force or pressure from the other Party to transfer their technology to persons of the other Party.

 

  1. Any transfer or licensing of technology between persons of a Party and those of the other Party must be based on market terms that are voluntary and reflect mutual agreement.

 

  1. A Party shall not support or direct the outbound foreign direct investment activities of its persons aimed at acquiring foreign technology with respect to sectors and industries targeted by its industrial plans that create distortion.

 

Article 2.2: Market Access

 

Neither Party shall require or pressure persons of the other Party to transfer technology to its persons in relation to acquisitions, joint ventures, or other investment transactions.

 

Article 2.3: Administrative and Licensing Requirements and Processes

 

  1. Neither Party shall adopt or maintain administrative and licensing requirements and processes that require or pressure technology transfer from persons of the other Party to its persons.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Neither Party shall require or pressure, formally or informally, persons of the other Party to transfer technology to its persons as a condition for, inter alia:

 

(a)                approving any administrative or licensing requirements;

 

(b)                operating in the jurisdiction of the Party or otherwise having access to the Party’s market; or

 

(c)                receiving or continuing to receive any advantages conferred by the Party.

 

  1. Neither Party shall require or pressure, formally or informally, persons of the other Party to use or favor technology that is owned by or licensed to its persons as a condition for, inter alia:

(a)                approving any administrative or licensing requirements;

 

(b)                operating in the jurisdiction of the Party, or otherwise having access to the Party’s market; or

 

(c)                receiving or continuing to receive any advantages conferred by the Party.

 

  1. The Parties shall make their administrative and licensing requirements and processes transparent.

 

  1. The Parties shall not require or pressure foreign persons to disclose sensitive technical information not necessary to show conformity with the relevant administrative or regulatory requirements.

 

  1. The Parties shall protect the confidentiality of any sensitive technical information disclosed by foreign persons during any administrative, regulatory, or other review processes.

 

Article 2.4: Due Process and Transparency

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure that any enforcement of laws and regulations with respect to persons of the other Party is impartial, fair, transparent, and non-discriminatory.

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure that rules of procedure for administrative proceedings related to the subject matter of this Agreement are published and provide meaningful notice regarding, at a minimum, the subject matter of the proceeding, applicable laws and regulations, rules of evidence, and relevant remedies and sanctions.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The Parties shall provide that persons of the other Party have the right to:

 

(a)                review evidence and have a meaningful opportunity to respond in any administrative proceedings against them; and

 

(b)                be represented by legal counsel in administrative proceedings.

 

Article 2.5: Scientific and Technological Cooperation

 

The Parties agree to carry out scientific and technological cooperation where appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

TRADE IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS1

 

Article 3.1: General

 

  1. To enhance mutual trust and friendly cooperation between China and the United States on issues affecting agricultural trade, to establish a foundation for addressing long-standing concerns, and to make agriculture a strong pillar of the bilateral relationship, the Parties:

 

(a)                   recognizing the importance of their agriculture sectors, of ensuring safe and reliable supplies of food and agricultural products, and of helping to meet the demand of the two countries’ peoples for food and agricultural products, intend to intensify cooperation in agriculture, to expand each Party’s market for food and agricultural products, and to promote the growth of trade in food and agricultural products between the Parties;

 

(b)                considering that science- and risk- based sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures play a crucial role in the protection of human, animal, and plant life and health, while the use of SPS measures for purposes of protectionism negatively impacts the welfare of consumers and producers, and recognizing the importance of ensuring that SPS measures are science-based, non-discriminatory, and account for regional differences in sanitary and phytosanitary characteristics, agree that neither Party shall apply sanitary or phytosanitary measures in a manner which would constitute a disguised restriction on international trade;

 

(c)                considering that the benefits of an agricultural trading system are reduced when importers and exporters are unfairly impeded from taking full advantage of agricultural market access opportunities, recognize that tariff-rate quota (TRQ) administration should not be employed as a means of preventing the full utilization of agricultural TRQs;

 

 

 


1 Article 8.5 (Final Provisions) shall not apply with respect to any proposed or final measure, including an amendment to an existing measure, intended to implement this Chapter, including its Annexes and Appendices.

 

 

 

 

 

(d)                noting the ability of agricultural biotechnology to improve lives by helping to feed growing populations, by reducing the environmental impact of agriculture, and by promoting more sustainable production, intend to maintain, for products of agricultural biotechnology, science- and risk-based regulatory frameworks and efficient authorization processes, in order to facilitate increased trade in such products; and

 

(e)                acknowledge the importance of each Party adhering to its World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments with respect to the provision of domestic support.

 

  1. Annexes 1-17 set out further commitments.

 

Annex 1. Agricultural Cooperation

 

  1. The Parties intend to strengthen and promote cooperative activities, to be mutually agreed upon by the Parties, in agricultural science and agricultural technology. Such activities may include mutually agreed information exchanges and cooperation. The Parties intend their cooperative activities to be based on, among other things, the principles of integrity, reciprocity, openness, transparency, science, and rule of law.

 

  1. The Parties intend to conduct technical consultations with each other on areas of potential cooperation related to pesticides for agricultural use. These consultations may include discussions of the Parties’ pesticide registration data and pesticide trial data, and discussions on the setting of maximum residue levels.

 

  1. The Parties intend to continue implementing and improving the China-United States Scientific Cooperation and Exchange Program to promote further exchanges on agriculture- related issues between U.S. and Chinese scientific and technical experts. Each Party intends to ensure the participation, as appropriate, of relevant agencies or ministries of its government in activities of the program.

 

  1. The Parties intend to encourage exchanges and dialogues on agricultural topics between, as appropriate, U.S. and Chinese national and sub-national government authorities, farmers, academics, businesses in the agriculture sector, and others. The Parties intend to continue implementation and improvement of existing mechanisms for bilateral communication on agricultural policy, such as the Joint Committee on Cooperation in Agriculture, and to facilitate communication on agricultural policy through participation of officials from both the U.S. and Chinese governments in relevant conferences on this topic, including the China Food Security

 

 

 

 

 

and Food Safety Strategy Summit and the United States’ and China’s respective Agricultural Outlook conferences.

 

  1. The Parties intend to promote communication between U.S. and Chinese technical experts on agricultural subjects of mutual interest, including, as appropriate, on production agriculture, crop insurance, trade in agricultural products, sanitary and phytosanitary matters, and rural development.

 

  1. The Parties intend to cooperate in technical discussions, as appropriate, related to sustainable agricultural development.

 

  1. The Parties intend to enhance, as appropriate, their information sharing on animal and plant pests and diseases, including through technical exchange visits. The Parties intend to communicate, as appropriate, their experiences with enhancing capacity to control animal and plant pests and diseases, and through such communication to promote disease detection and the research and development of technologies for the detection and control of such diseases and pests.

 

  1. The Parties intend to engage each other cooperatively on agriculture-related technical, and sanitary and phytosanitary, measures, including on the subject of risk communication. The Parties intend to engage each other cooperatively on these subjects including by increasing cooperation on them in international organizations, such as the WTO, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex).

 

  1. The Parties intend to establish cooperation mechanisms, under the framework of the 2019 Osaka Declaration on Digital Economy, for the discussion of ways in which digital technologies can benefit the agriculture sector.

 

  1. The Parties intend to include all relevant agencies of their governments in the governmental activities discussed in this Annex.

 

  1. For greater certainty, nothing in this Annex shall obligate either Party to expend, obligate, or transfer any funds, or to dedicate personnel or other resources to any cooperative activity.

 

Annex 2.         Dairy and Infant Formula

 

  1. As soon as practicable following the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the General Administration of Customs of the People’s Republic of China (GACC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) shall initiate bilateral technical discussions to review

 

 

 

 

 

Import Alert 99-30 “Detention Without Physical Examination of All Milk Products, Milk Derived Ingredients and Finished Food Products Containing Milk from China due to the Presence of Melamine and/or Melamine Analogs” in order to clarify the steps necessary for the removal of Import Alert 99-30.

 

Dairy Products

 

  1. Aiming to better meet Chinese consumers’ ever-growing needs for dairy products, China shall:

 

(a)                upon entry into force of this Agreement, allow imports of U.S. dairy products that are:

 

(i)                 manufactured at a facility on a list compiled by the FDA; and

 

(ii)               accompanied by an Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) dairy sanitary certificate;

 

(b)                within 10 days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, recognize the

U.S. dairy-safety system as providing at least the same level of protection as China’s dairy-safety system;

 

(c)                each time the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of dairy facilities and products under the jurisdiction of the FDA, within 20 working days of receipt of the list:

 

(i)                 register the facilities and publish the list of facilities and products on the GACC website; and

 

(ii)               allow U.S. dairy imports into China from those facilities;

 

(d)                allow imports of U.S. dairy products of bovine, ovine, and caprine origins when accompanied by an AMS dairy sanitary certificate;

 

(e)                with respect to extended shelf life (ESL) milk:

 

(i)                 allow ESL milk produced in the United States to be imported and sold as pasteurized milk in China;

 

 

 

 

 

(ii)               notify the draft standard to the WTO should China undertake development of a new standard for ESL milk;

 

(iii)             ensure that the new standard and all implementing actions are consistent with China’s WTO obligations; and

 

(iv)             allow imports of U.S. ESL milk consistent with Paragraph 2(a), (c), and (d);

 

(f)                 with respect to fortified milk:

 

(i)                 allow fortified milk produced in the United States to be imported into China subject to China’s National Food Safety Standard - Modified Milk (GB25191), consistent with Paragraph 2(a), (c), and (d);

 

(ii)               allow such product to be labeled and sold to consumers as “pasteurized- modified milk” provided the product is pasteurized;

 

(iii)             notify the draft standard to the WTO should China undertake development of a new standard for fortified milk; and

 

(iv)             ensure that the new standard and all implementing actions are consistent with China’s WTO obligations;

 

(g)              with respect to U.S. ultrafiltered fluid milk:

 

(i)                 allow U.S. ultrafiltered fluid milk to be imported into China referring to China’s National Food Safety Standard - Modified Milk (GB25191), consistent with Paragraph 2(a), (c), and (d) and such products should be labeled with “ultrafiltration technology”;

 

(ii)               allow such products to be labeled as “pasteurized-modified milk” provided the product is pasteurized;

 

(iii)             notify the draft standard to the WTO once China develops a draft of a new standard for ultrafiltered milk; and

 

(iv)             ensure that the new standard and all implementing actions are consistent with China’s WTO obligations; and

 

 

 

 

 

(h)                  with respect to U.S. dairy permeate powder:

 

(i)                 within 60 working days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement:

 

  1. complete the approval process for U.S. dairy permeate powder for human consumption consistent with the requirements of the Notice of the General Office of the National Health and Family Planning Commission for Regulating the Review of Imported Foods for Which There Is No Chinese National Food Safety Standards (GuoWeiBanShiPinFa [2017] No.14); and

 

  1. allow the importation of U.S. dairy permeate powder;

 

(ii)               notify the draft standard to the WTO should China undertake development of a new standard for dairy permeate powder; and

 

(iii)             ensure that the new standard and all implementing actions are consistent with China’s WTO obligations.

 

Infant Formula

 

  1. Aiming to better meet Chinese consumers’ ever-growing needs for infant formula products, China shall:

 

(a)                take into full consideration section 412 of the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 350a) and its implementing regulations when China reviews applications for, and decides on, the registration of U.S. infant formula products;

 

(b)                accept, complete review of, and issue a decision on product registration applications regardless of whether the submitting entity is associated with an already-registered facility;

 

(c)                complete technical reviews of infant formula product registration applications and do so ordinarily within 45 working days from receipt of the application;

 

(d)                normally complete within 40 working days of completing the technical review, provided the U.S. manufacturer provides timely access if needed, any audit, inspection, sampling, or testing that is required in order to register an infant formula product;

 

 

 

 

 

 

(e)                taking into consideration the FDA’s previous product reviews, inspections, and determinations of the regulatory standing of the facility or facilities where the product is manufactured, complete the product registration within 20 working days following completion of the technical review or of any required audit, inspection, sampling, or testing;

 

(f)                 ensure non-disclosure of all trade secrets provided in the infant formula product registration process;

 

(g)               each time the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of infant formula facilities under the jurisdiction of the FDA, within 20 working days of receipt of the list, register the facilities, publish the list on the GACC website, and allow U.S. infant formula imports into China from those facilities, provided the infant formula product is registered with the State Administration of Market Regulation;

 

(h)                not require renewal of registration of:

 

(i)                 infant formula facilities more frequently than once every four years; and

 

(ii)               infant formula products more frequently than once every five years;

 

(i)                 take into account previous Chinese audit reports, U.S. regulatory information, and any other relevant information, including information provided by the manufacturer, when determining whether a facility inspection is required for product registration or re-registration; and

 

(j)        within one week of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, register those

U.S. infant formula facilities whose products have been approved in China and that have facility registration applications pending review by the GACC by publishing the complete list of facilities on the GACC website.

 

Audits and Inspections for Dairy Products and Infant Formula

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                at least 20 working days in advance of any inspection or audit at a U.S. dairy or infant formula facility, notify the FDA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the facility;

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)                to streamline procedures, improve efficiency, and advance trade facilitation, not require an on-site audit or inspection as a pre-requisite to registering a dairy or infant formula facility; and

 

(c)                ensure that any audit or inspection it conducts for an infant formula product registration or for the registration of a dairy or infant formula facility is for verification of either the U.S. system of oversight or of the ability of the facility to meet the applicable requirements.

 

  1. China continues to have the right to audit the U.S. dairy and infant formula food safety regulatory system, including a representative sample of U.S. dairy and infant formula facilities, in coordination with the FDA. Such auditing shall be risk-based. China also continues to have the right to conduct inspections of a risk-based selection of shipments of U.S. dairy and infant formula products at the port of entry. If China determines, based on scientific inspection, that a particular shipment of U.S dairy or infant formula products is in violation of applicable food safety import requirements, China may refuse importation of that shipment. If China determines that there is a significant, sustained or recurring pattern of non-conformity with an applicable food safety measure by a particular facility, China may refuse to accept shipments from that facility until the problem is resolved. China shall notify the FDA of such non-conformity. The Parties shall exchange information on their dairy and infant formula food safety regulatory systems and other public-health matters.

 

Annex 3.         Poultry

 

  1. The Parties shall sign and implement the Protocol on Cooperation on Notification and Control Procedures for Certain Significant Poultry Diseases within 30 days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement.

 

  1. For those U.S. poultry and poultry products imported into China prior to January 1, 2015, China shall, within 30 days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, issue, based on its previously-conducted assessment of the U.S. regulatory system, a final decision on whether to permit the importation of the product. China shall permit their importation consistently with existing bilaterally-agreed import protocols.

 

  1. China shall maintain measures consistent with the 2018 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code Chapter 10.4, or any successor provisions.

 

  1. Within 30 days following receipt from China of a formal request for an evaluation of a region of China for avian disease free recognition and a completed information package to

 

 

 

 

 

support such a request that addresses the eight factors outlined in 9 CFR Part 92, or any successor provisions, the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) shall initiate such an evaluation.

 

Annex 4.         Beef

 

  1. The Parties shall continue implementing the 2017 Protocol for the importation of U.S. beef and beef products into China; however, this Agreement shall prevail over any requirements in the Protocol that are inconsistent with this Agreement. The two Parties may revise the Protocol according to this Agreement if appropriate.

 

  1. China acknowledges that the United States has submitted all relevant and necessary information as requested by China to enable completion of a risk assessment related to the importation of all U.S. beef, beef products, and pet food containing ruminant ingredients. China shall, within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, eliminate the cattle age requirements for the importation of U.S. beef and beef products.

 

  1. China recognizes the U.S. beef and beef products traceability system. The U.S. Government, in accordance with U.S. regulations, continuously maintains measures, including for traceability, that meet or exceed OIE guidelines for maintaining negligible risk status for the bovine disease addressed in Chapter 11.4 of the 2018 OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Provided the United States maintains its OIE negligible risk classification for that disease, China shall not impose new import restrictions or requirements related to that disease on imports of

U.S. beef. Should the United States’ negligible risk status change, China shall administer the regulations for imports of U.S. beef in accordance with the 2018 OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 11.4, Article 11.4.11 or any successor provisions.

 

  1. Aiming to better meet Chinese consumers’ ever-growing needs for meat, within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China shall permit the importation into China of those beef and beef products, except for those listed in Appendix I (Beef, Pork, and Poultry Products Considered Not Eligible for Import into China), inspected by the USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) in an FSIS-approved facility.

 

  1. Within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China shall adopt maximum residue limits (MRLs) for zeranol, trenbolone acetate, and melangesterol acetate for imported beef. For beef tissues for which Codex has established MRLs for these hormones, China shall adopt the Codex MRLs. For beef tissues for which Codex has not established MRLs for these hormones, China shall adopt its MRLs by following Codex standards and guidelines and referring to MRLs established by other countries that have performed science-based risk assessments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 5.         Live Breeding Cattle

 

1.         Based on the request and information provided by the United States on February 13, 2019, and on March 6, 2019, the Parties shall, within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, commence technical discussions on the preparation of a U.S. export health certificate and a protocol for the importation into China of U.S. breeding cattle, with a view to realizing trade as soon as possible.

 

Annex 6.         Pork

 

  1. The Parties intend to promote cooperative activities within the Global African Swine Fever Research Alliance (GARA) to share publicly-available scientific knowledge and information to contribute to the progressive control and eradication of African swine fever (ASF).

 

  1. Aiming to better meet Chinese consumers’ ever growing needs for meat, within 10 working days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement China shall permit the importation into China of those pork and pork products inspected by the FSIS in an FSIS-approved facility.

 

Annex 7.         Meat, Poultry and Processed Meat

 

  1. Upon entry into force of this Agreement, China shall recognize FSIS oversight of U.S. meat, poultry meat, and processed meat and poultry meat facilities for purposes of allowing imports of U.S. meat, poultry meat, and processed meat and poultry meat.

 

  1. Upon entry into force of this Agreement, China shall accept meat, poultry meat, and processed meat and poultry meat, except for those products listed in Appendix I (Beef, Pork, and Poultry Products Considered Not Eligible for Import into China), inspected by the FSIS in an FSIS-approved facility and accompanied by a FSIS Export Certificate of Wholesomeness (FSIS 9060-5/FSIS 9295-1).

 

  1. Each time the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of FSIS- approved facilities, China shall, within 20 working days of receipt, publish the list on the GACC website and allow the importation into China of products from all facilities on the list.

 

  1. China continues to have the right to audit the U.S. meat and poultry food safety regulatory system, including a representative sample of U.S. meat and poultry facilities, in coordination with the FSIS. Such auditing shall be risk-based. China also continues to have the right to conduct inspections of a risk-based selection of shipments of U.S. meat and poultry

 

 

 

 

 

products at the port of entry. If China determines, based on scientific inspection, that a particular shipment of U.S. meat or poultry products is in violation of applicable food safety import requirements, China may refuse importation of that shipment. If China determines that there is a significant, sustained or recurring pattern of non-conformity with an applicable food safety measure by a particular facility, China may refuse to accept shipments from that facility until the problem is resolved. China shall notify the FSIS of such non-conformity. The Parties shall exchange information on their meat and poultry food safety regulatory systems and other public- health matters.

 

  1. In consultation with U.S. experts, China shall conduct a risk assessment for ractopamine in cattle and swine as soon as possible without undue delay, and in a manner consistent both with Codex and FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) risk assessment guidance and with the risk assessment for ractopamine previously conducted by the FAO/WHO JECFA. The risk assessment shall be based on verifiable data and the approved conditions of ractopamine use in the United States. China and the United States shall establish a joint working group to discuss the steps to be taken based on the results of the risk assessment.

 

Annex 8.         Electronic Meat and Poultry Information System

 

  1. Aiming to streamline trade and deepen cooperation between the United States and China with respect to certification, the GACC shall work with the USDA to finalize the technical requirements for, and to implement, an electronic and automated system for China to access FSIS export certificates accompanying U.S. exports to China of meat, poultry, and meat and poultry products.

 

  1. Provided the United States has implemented the system, and demonstrates the reliability and safety of the system, China shall also implement the system by February 2020. China shall accept via the system all information, including FSIS certificates, necessary to allow shipments of U.S. meat, poultry, and meat and poultry products into China and shall provide relevant certificate information in a timely manner to the Chinese port customs officials.

 

  1. The USDA has a directive permitting replacement certificates in certain instances when appropriate. The GACC shall accept replacement certificates, provided that the FSIS ensures that replacement certificates are clearly identifiable. China shall accept replacement certificates issued by the USDA for situations that include the following:

 

(a)                the original certificate did not contain required information;

 

(b)               the original certificate contained typographical errors;

 

 

 

 

 

 

(c)                the importer, exporter, consignee, or consignor changed, but is within the same country that appears on the original certificate;

 

(d)               the certificate is lost or damaged; or

 

(e)                the port of entry changed.

 

Annex 9.          Aquatic Products

 

  1. As soon as practicable following the entry into force of this Agreement, the GACC and the FDA shall resume bilateral meetings of the U.S.-China Technical Working Group on Seafood. The Technical Working Group shall identify steps China can take to provide evidence for FDA to assess whether China has controls that would ensure that Chinese aquatic products exported to the United States meet U.S. requirements. The United States confirms that if a Chinese aquatic product producer or exporter submits sufficient evidence to the FDA and the FDA determines that the firm and product should be excluded from Import Alert 16-131, the Chinese aquatic product producer or exporter shall be added to the Green List for Import Alert 16-131.

 

  1. Aiming to better meet Chinese consumers’ ever-growing needs for aquatic products, as soon as practicable following the entry into force of this Agreement, the GACC and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) shall meet to discuss the process for approving the importation into China of the aquatic species that are sold in U.S. interstate commerce but that are not authorized for sale in China.  If the NOAA submits sufficient evidence to the GACC concerning one of these aquatic species, the GACC shall determine whether the species is safe to consume and will be allowed to be imported into China.

 

  1. Within 20 working days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China shall allow imports into China from those:

 

(a)                aquatic products facilities considered to be in good regulatory standing by the FDA and also registered by the GACC, when the shipment is accompanied by the bilaterally–agreed certificate issued by the NOAA; and

 

(b)                fish meal processing facilities considered to be in good regulatory standing by the NOAA and also registered by the GACC, when the shipment is accompanied by the bilaterally-agreed certificate issued by the NOAA.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                each time the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of aquatic products facilities under the jurisdiction of the FDA, within 20 working days of receipt of the list, register the facilities, publish the list of the facilities on the GACC website, and allow U.S. aquatic product imports into China from those facilities; and

 

(b)                each time the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of fish meal processing facilities under the jurisdiction of the NOAA, within 20 working days of receipt of the list, register the facilities, publish the list of the facilities on the GACC website, and allow U.S. fish meal imports into China from those facilities.

 

  1. China continues to have the right to audit the U.S. aquatic products food safety regulatory system, including a representative sample of U.S. aquatic product facilities, in coordination with the FDA. Such auditing shall be risk-based. China also continues to have the right to conduct inspections of a risk-based selection of shipments of U.S. aquatic products at the port of entry. If China determines that a particular shipment of U.S. aquatic products is in violation of applicable food safety import requirements, China may refuse importation of that shipment. If China determines that there is a significant, sustained or recurring pattern of non-conformity with an applicable food safety measure by a particular facility, China may refuse to accept shipments from that facility until the problem is resolved. China shall notify the FDA of such non- conformity. The Parties shall exchange information on their aquatic products food safety regulatory systems and other public-health matters concerning aquatic products.

 

Annex 10.       Rice

 

1.         Each time the United States provides China with a list of rice facilities approved by the APHIS as compliant with the Phytosanitary Protocol on the Import of Rice from the United States to China, within 20 working days of receipt of the list, China shall register the facilities, publish the list of facilities, and allow the importation of U.S. rice from each of the APHIS- approved rice facilities. China continues to have the right to conduct on-site phytosanitary audits of registered rice facilities.

 

Annex 11.       Plant Health

 

  1. Within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the Parties shall start technical consultations in order to sign, as soon as possible, a phytosanitary protocol on Chinese

 

 

 

 

 

Bonsai in growing mediums for export to the United States excluding orchids, with a view to realizing trade as soon as possible.

 

  1. Within 45 days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS shall complete its regulatory notice process for imports of Chinese fragrant pear.

 

  1. Within two months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS shall complete its regulatory notice process for imports of Chinese citrus.

 

  1. Within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS shall complete its regulatory notice process for imports of Chinese Jujube.

 

  1. Within seven working days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow the importation of U.S. fresh potatoes for processing into China.

 

  1. Within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow the importation of California nectarines into China.

 

  1. Within three months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow the importation of U.S. blueberries into China.

 

  1. Within three months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow the importation of California Hass avocadoes into China.

 

  1. Within three months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow the importation of U.S. barley into China. The GACC, in coordination with USDA/APHIS, may conduct an on-site visit of U.S. barley production.

 

  1. Within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the GACC shall meet with USDA/APHIS and conduct an on-site visit of U.S. production of U.S. alfalfa hay pellets and cubes, U.S. almond meal pellets and cubes, and U.S. timothy hay. Within three months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, USDA/APHIS and the GACC shall sign and implement a phytosanitary protocol to allow importation into China of these products.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The Parties confirm they shall not require a phytosanitary certificate for the importation from the other Party of frozen fruits and vegetables.

 

  1. The Parties shall continue technical consultations concerning facilitation of trade in grain and oilseed products.

 

Annex 12.       Feed Additives, Premixes, Compound Feed, Distillers’ Dried Grains, and Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles

 

  1. To streamline procedures, improve efficiencies, and advance trade facilitation, and to better meet demand for feed to promote the development of animal husbandry, China shall:

 

(a)                not require an on-site audit or inspection as a condition for registering facilities or for approving the importation into China of feed additives, premixes, compound feed products, Distillers’ Dried Grains (DDG), and Distillers’ Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS);

 

(b)               not require an export protocol as a condition for permitting the importation into China of feed additives, premixes, compound feed products, DDG, and DDGS; and

 

(c)                ensure that its requirements for imports of feed additives, premixes, compound feed products, DDG, and DDGS from the United States are consistent with international standards and guidelines.

 

  1. Each time that the United States provides China with an updated and complete list of

U.S. feed additive, premix, compound feed product, DDG, and DDGS facilities, China shall, within 20 working days of receiving the information, register the facilities, publish the list on the GACC website, and allow imports of feed additives, premixes, compound feed products, DDG, and DDGS from U.S. facilities appearing on the list on the GACC website.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                (i)        within three months of receiving an application from a U.S. DDG or DDGS manufacturer for the approval of the importation into China of one of its products, complete the review of that application; and

(ii)               within 20 working days of completing the review of that application, issue a license allowing importation of the product into China; and

 

 

 

 

 

(b)              within 20 working days of receiving an application from a U.S. DDG or DDGS manufacturer that holds or has held a license permitting importation into China of one of its products, but whose license:

 

(i)                 expired on or after January 1, 2017, or

 

(ii)               is scheduled to expire after that date,

 

issue a license to that manufacturer allowing imports of the product into China.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                within nine months of receiving an application for the approval of the importation into China of a new feed additive, premix, or compound feed product, complete

its review of that application and add the product onto China’s List of Feed and Feed Additives;

 

(b)               within three months of receiving a new application for the approval of the importation into China of a feed additive, premix, or compound feed product, complete its review of that application and issue a license allowing importation of the product; and

 

(c)                within 20 working days of receiving an application for renewal for a feed additive, premix, or compound feed product license, issue a renewed license allowing importation of the product.

 

  1. China continues to have the right to audit the U.S. feed additive, premix, compound feed, DDG, and DDGS feed safety regulatory system, including a representative sample of U.S. feed additive, premix, compound feed, DDG, and DDGS feed facilities, in coordination with the relevant U.S. competent authority. Such auditing shall be risk-based. China also continues to have the right to conduct inspections of a risk-based selection of shipments of U.S. feed additive, premix, compound feed, DDG, and DDGS feed products at the port of entry. If China determines, based on scientific inspection, that a particular shipment of U.S. feed additives, premix, compound feed, DDG, and DDGS feed is in violation of applicable feed safety import requirements, China may refuse importation of that shipment. If China determines that there is a significant, sustained or recurring pattern of non-conformity with an applicable feed safety measure by a particular facility, China may refuse to accept shipments from that facility until the problem is resolved. China shall notify the relevant U.S. competent authority of such non- conformity. The Parties shall exchange information on their feed additive, premix, compound feed, DDG, and DDGS feed safety regulatory systems.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 13.       Pet Food and Non-ruminant Derived Animal Feed

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                within one month of the date of entry into force of this Agreement:

 

(i)                 lift its ban on U.S. pet food containing ruminant ingredients in accordance with Annex 4.2 (Beef); and

 

(ii)               eliminate the use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing on all U.S. pet food products containing ruminant ingredients, and limit PCR testing of U.S. pet food products not containing ruminant ingredients to a risk- based selection of shipments;

 

(b)                upon entry into force of this Agreement, allow the importation of U.S. pet foods containing poultry products;

 

(c)                not require completion or submission of any facility questionnaire for registration purposes, except that China may request completion of a facility questionnaire with respect to a facility that China is auditing; and

 

(d)                allow the importation of pet foods with animal-origin ingredients from a 3rd country as long as the ingredients are legally imported into the United States, meet U.S. domestic requirements for inclusion in pet food, and are traceable to the country of origin.

 

  1. 2.                  Upon entry into force of this Agreement, the Parties shall engage in technical discussions to discuss the importation of U.S. pet food into China. Within two months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, the Parties shall sign a protocol on U.S. pet food imports into China. Before a new protocol is signed, China shall continue to allow imports of U.S. pet food as detailed in the Protocol on the Veterinary Health Requirements for Non-Ruminant Derived

Animal Feed and Tallow to be Imported from the United States of America to the People’s Republic of China, dated November 18, 2004.

 

  1. China has completed its review of 24 new U.S. pet food and animal feed facilities and shall, within five working days of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, include those facilities on the list of facilities allowed to export to China pet food or non-ruminant derived animal feed.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The United States shall, on a monthly basis, provide to China any updates to the list of

U.S. pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed facilities that the United States has determined to be eligible to export pet food or non-ruminant derived animal feed to China. Upon receipt of each update to the list, China shall, within 20 working days, register the facilities, publish the updates to the list of facilities on the GACC website, and allow imports of pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed from U.S. facilities on the list on the GACC website.

 

  1. China continues to have the right to audit the U.S. pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed safety regulatory system, including a representative sample of U.S. pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed facilities, in coordination with the relevant U.S. competent authority. Such auditing shall be risk-based. China also continues to have the right to conduct inspections of a risk-based selection of shipments of U.S. pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed at the port of entry. If China determines, based on scientific inspection, that a particular shipment of U.S pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed is in violation of applicable pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed safety import requirements, China may refuse importation of that shipment. If China determines that there is a significant, sustained or recurring pattern of non-conformity with an applicable feed safety measure by a particular facility, China may refuse to accept shipments from that facility until the problem is resolved. China shall notify the relevant U.S. competent authority of such non-conformity. The

Parties shall exchange information on their pet food and non-ruminant derived animal feed safety regulatory systems.

 

Annex 14.       Tariff Rate Quotas

 

  1. China shall ensure that, from December 31, 2019, its TRQ measures for wheat, rice, and corn are in conformity with the Panel Report in China-Tariff Rate Quotas for Certain Agricultural Products and the WTO agreements, including China’s commitments under the

Protocol on the Accession of the People’s Republic of China to the WTO and China’s Schedule CLII, Part I, Section 1(B).

 

  1. The entirety of China’s TRQs for wheat, rice, and corn (WRC TRQs) for each year shall be allocated by January 1 of that year to end-users. China shall ensure that it does not inhibit the filling of its WRC TRQs.

 

  1. China’s requirements for WRC TRQ eligibility, allocation, return, reallocation, and penalties shall not discriminate between State Trading Enterprises (STEs) and non-STEs and shall apply equally to the STE share of the WRC TRQ and the non-STE share of the WRC TRQ. For the purposes of China’s WRC TRQ administration measures, “end-users” and “enterprises” include STEs when allocated a WRC TRQ.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. China shall reallocate all unused and returned WRC TRQ amounts, including all unused and returned amounts allocated to STEs or designated as part of the “STE share,” by October 1 of each year. Only new applicants and entities other than those returning unused quotas shall be eligible to receive reallocated WRC TRQ amounts.

 

  1. China shall make all WRC TRQ allocations in commercially viable shipping amounts.

 

  1. China shall clearly specify and publish all eligibility criteria for its WRC TRQs and all allocation principles for its WRC TRQ administration, and the allocation principles shall be relevant to the importation, processing, or sale of the commodity subject to the WRC TRQ. China shall ensure that a sufficient number of STE and non-STE entities, including new quota applicants, are eligible to receive WRC TRQ allocations, and that the full utilization of its WRC TRQs is not inhibited.

 

  1. Consistent with China’s WTO obligations, at the request of the United States, China shall provide the relevant WRC TRQ allocation and reallocation information requested.

 

  1. Each Party shall make available on a public website existing laws, regulations, and announcements on its administration of WRC TRQs, if any, and publish any change to them in a timely manner. Upon request of a Party, the Parties shall hold consultations on TRQ administration pursuant to the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter.

 

Annex 15.       Domestic Support

 

  1. China shall respect its WTO obligations to publish in an official journal its laws, regulations, and other measures pertaining to its domestic support programs and policies.

 

  1. For greater certainty, nothing in this Agreement limits the rights of the United States under the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding against China with respect to China’s domestic support measures.

 

Annex 16.       Agricultural Biotechnology

 

  1. To help realize the benefits of agricultural biotechnology for sustainable agriculture, the Parties agree to carry out exchanges on agricultural biotechnology, and intend to take steps to enhance engagement with the public concerning agricultural biotechnology and public awareness of scientific information relevant to agricultural biotechnology, with the aim of building public confidence in, and acceptance of, the use of safe biotechnology in agriculture and the food system.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. China shall implement a transparent, predictable, efficient, science- and risk-based regulatory process for safety evaluation and authorization of products of agricultural biotechnology. For agricultural biotechnology products for feed or further processing, China shall significantly reduce, to no more than 24 months, the average amount of time between:

 

(a)                the submission of a formal application for authorization of such a product; and

 

(b)               the final decision on approval or disapproval of the product.

 

China shall base its safety evaluation procedures on the relevant international standards and recommendations of Codex and the International Plant Protection Convention. China shall base any safety evaluation that it conducts on scientific data and information obtained using appropriate methods and analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques.

 

  1. The Parties shall strengthen communication on biotechnology regulation, in order to increase mutual understanding and to facilitate trade in products of agricultural biotechnology.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                within five working days of receipt of the product dossier submitted in support of a formal application for approval of a product of agricultural biotechnology, pre- screen for completeness, by means of comparison against the requirements on the application form, the dossier and inform the applicant of any deficiencies in the sufficiency of information in the dossier;

 

(b)               accept complaints from applicants concerning the operation of the approval procedure for agricultural biotechnology products to be used for purposes of food, feed, and processing, and take corrective action upon receipt of a justified complaint;

 

(c)                when additional information from an applicant is necessary for the National Biosafety Committee (NBC) to finalize a safety evaluation, within 20 working days of the NBC meeting at which the NBC ascertained its need for the additional information, request all such information in writing and provide a written explanation to the applicant of how the requested information would be relevant

to the safety of the product’s intended use;

 

(d)               when additional information has been submitted to the NBC by an applicant, ensure that the NBC meets as soon as possible and as often as necessary thereafter in order to finalize the NBC’s review of the application; and

 

 

 

 

 

 

(e)                convene at least two NBC meetings per year and increase, depending on the number of applications, the frequency of NBC meetings as much as necessary.

 

  1. China shall establish an authorization period of at least five years for any agricultural biotechnology product.

 

  1. China shall, within 12 months of the date of entry into force of this Agreement, establish and make public a simplified, predictable, science- and risk-based, and efficient safety- assessment procedure for approval of food ingredients derived from genetically modified microorganisms.

 

  1. China shall:

 

(a)                accept applications for agricultural biotechnology product approvals on an on- going, year-round basis;

 

(b)               if prior to receipt by China of a formal application for approval of an agricultural biotechnology product but following the submission of the dossier for the product to U.S. authorities, the dossier for the product is submitted to China, pre-screen the dossier within five working days of receipt for completeness against the Chinese requirements that will apply following the submission of a formal application for approval of the product in China;

 

(c)                upon receipt of a formal application, begin review of any application for approval of an agricultural biotechnology product;

 

(d)               not request information unnecessary for assessing the safety of a product for its intended use; and

 

(e)                for any product that passes China’s safety evaluation, make the administrative decision of approval and issue a biosafety certificate within 20 working days of conclusion of the NBC meeting.

 

  1. In the event of an occurrence of low-level presence (LLP) affecting a U.S. shipment exported to China, China shall:

 

(a)                without undue delay, inform the importer or the importer’s agent of the LLP occurrence and of any additional pertinent information that will be required to be

 

 

 

 

 

submitted to assist China to make a decision on the management of the LLP occurrence;

 

(b)               provide to the United States a summary of any risk or safety assessment that China has conducted in connection with the LLP occurrence;

 

(c)                ensure that the LLP occurrence is managed without unnecessary delay; and

 

(d)               take into account any relevant risk or safety assessment provided, and authorization granted, by the United States or any foreign country when deciding how to manage the LLP occurrence.

 

  1. China shall evaluate inadvertent or technically unavoidable LLP occurrences on a case- by-case basis to minimize trade disruptions.

 

  1. The Parties agree to organize experts to conduct further studies on the issue of LLP and to collaborate internationally on practical approaches to addressing LLP.

 

Annex 17.       Food Safety

 

1.         The Parties shall not implement food safety regulations, or require actions of the other Party’s regulatory authorities, that are not science- or risk-based and shall only apply such regulations and require such actions to the extent necessary to protect human life or health.

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix I: Beef, Pork, and Poultry Products Considered Not Eligible for Import into China

 

U.S. statutes and regulations require the condemnation of meat and poultry carcasses, parts thereof, and products, found to be diseased, adulterated or otherwise unfit at the time of slaughter, or during any subsequent inspection. The FSIS does not allow meat or poultry products that are determined to be unqualified, or that are contaminated—for example, with feces, foreign material, or cerebral fluid from cattle—to enter commerce. Animals that display systemic signs of disease or pathologies are condemned. FSIS Public Health Veterinarians certify on the FSIS certificate that the meat or poultry products are from animals that received both antemortem and postmortem inspection and were found sound and healthy. In addition, the product has been inspected and passed as provided by law and regulations of the USDA, and is wholesome, and suitable for human consumption

 

The following is a list of products that are not eligible for importation into China, including when incorporated into further-processed products:

 

(a)                beef and pork: thyroid glands, adrenal glands, uropygial glands, tonsils, major lymph nodes exposed during slaughter and cutting, laryngeal muscle tissue, lungs, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, uterus, hair, hoofs, and lactating mammary glands;

 

(b)                horns from cattle;

 

(c)                mechanically separated beef and distal ileum from cattle of any age;

 

(d)                brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and vertebral column (excluding the vertebrae of the tail, the transverse processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, and the wings of the sacrum), from cattle 30 months of age and older; and

 

(e)                feathers, heads, intestines, and tails of poultry.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4 FINANCIAL SERVICES

 

Article 4.1: Objectives

 

The Parties believe that they have a significant opportunity for cooperation and mutual benefit in bilateral services trade. Each Party requests that the other Party ensure fair, effective, and non-discriminatory participation in its market for services and services suppliers of the other Party. The Parties shall work constructively to provide fair, effective, and non-discriminatory market access for each other’s services and services suppliers. To that end, the Parties shall take specific actions beginning with the actions set forth in this Chapter with respect to the financial services sector.

 

Article 4.2: Banking Services

 

  1. The Parties acknowledge the importance of mutually beneficial cooperation to enhance market access and strengthen the Parties’ respective banking services sectors.

 

  1. China commits that when a qualified subsidiary of a U.S. financial institution provides or seeks to provide securities investment fund custody services, its parent company’s overseas assets shall be taken into consideration in order to fulfill applicable asset requirements. Within five months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China shall allow branches of

U.S. financial institutions to provide securities investment fund custody services, and the parent company’s overseas assets shall be taken into consideration in order to fulfill applicable asset requirements. China shall review and approve qualified applications by U.S. financial institutions for securities investment fund custody licenses on an expeditious basis.

 

  1. China affirms that U.S. financial institutions applying to serve as Type-A lead underwriters for all types of non-financial debt instruments shall be evaluated and granted licenses based on the revised formula for granting lead underwriting licenses for non-financial enterprise debt instruments, which takes into account U.S. financial institutions’ international qualifications in order to fulfill applicable requirements for the entity seeking the license in China.

 

  1. The United States acknowledges current pending requests by Chinese institutions, including by CITIC Group, and affirms that such requests will be considered expeditiously.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article 4.3: Credit Rating Services

 

  1. China affirms that a wholly U.S.-owned credit rating services supplier has been allowed to rate domestic bonds sold to domestic and international investors, including for the interbank market. China commits that it shall continue to allow U.S. service suppliers, including wholly U.S.-owned credit rating services suppliers, to rate all types of domestic bonds sold to domestic and international investors. Within three months after the date of entry into force of this Agreement, China shall review and approve any pending license applications of U.S. service suppliers to provide credit rating services.

 

  1. Each Party shall allow a supplier of credit rating services of the other Party to acquire a majority ownership stake in the supplier’s existing joint venture.

 

  1. The United States affirms that it accords non-discriminatory treatment to Chinese credit rating services suppliers.

 

Article 4.4:     Electronic Payment Services

 

  1. China shall accept any applications from a U.S. electronic payment services supplier, including an application of a supplier seeking to operate as a wholly foreign-owned entity, to begin preparatory work to become a bank card clearing institution within five working days of submission, and may make a one-time request within those five working days for any corrections or supplementary information. If such a request is made, China shall accept the application within five working days after the applicant has responded to that request. China shall make a determination with respect to the application, including an explanation of any adverse determination, within 90 working days of its acceptance.

 

  1. No later than one month after a U.S. service supplier notifies China that it has completed its preparatory work, China shall accept the license application of such U.S. supplier, including any license application of Mastercard, Visa, or American Express, and shall make a determination with respect to the application, including an explanation of any adverse determination.

 

  1. The United States affirms it accords non-discriminatory treatment to Chinese electronic payment service suppliers, including UnionPay.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Article 4.5:     Financial Asset Management (Distressed Debt) Services

 

  1. The Parties acknowledge the mutual beneficial opportunities in the distressed debt services sector and will work together to promote further opportunities in this sector.

 

  1. China shall allow U.S. financial services suppliers to apply for asset management company licenses that would permit them to acquire non-performing loans directly from Chinese banks, beginning with provincial licenses. When additional national licenses are granted, China shall treat U.S. financial services suppliers on a non-discriminatory basis with Chinese suppliers, including with respect to the granting of such licenses.

 

  1. The United States will continue to allow Chinese financial services suppliers to engage in acquisition and resolution of non-performing loans in the United States.

 

Article 4.6:     Insurance Services

 

  1. No later than April 1, 2020, China shall remove the foreign equity cap in the life, pension, and health insurance sectors and allow wholly U.S.-owned insurance companies to participate in these sectors. China affirms that there are no restrictions on the ability of U.S.- owned insurance companies established in China to wholly own insurance asset management companies in China.

 

  1. No later than April 1, 2020, China shall remove any business scope limitations, discriminatory regulatory processes and requirements, and overly burdensome licensing and operating requirements for all insurance sectors (including insurance intermediation), and shall thereafter review and approve expeditiously any application by U.S. financial services suppliers for licenses to supply insurance services. In accordance with this commitment, China affirms that it has eliminated the requirement of thirty-years of insurance business operations for establishment of new foreign insurance companies.

 

  1. The United States acknowledges current pending requests by Chinese institutions, including by China Reinsurance Group, and affirms that such requests will be considered expeditiously.

 

Article 4.7:     Securities, Fund Management, Futures Services

 

  1. Each Party shall, on a non-discriminatory basis, review and approve a qualified application of a financial institution of the other Party for a securities, fund management, or futures license. The Parties affirm that licensed financial institutions of the other Party are

 

 

 

 

 

entitled to supply the same full scope of services in these sectors as licensed financial institutions of the Party.

 

  1. No later than April 1, 2020, China shall eliminate foreign equity limits and allow wholly U.S.-owned services suppliers to participate in the securities, fund management, and futures sectors.

 

  1. China affirms that it substantially reduced the high net asset value requirement on majority shareholders of securities services suppliers on July 5, 2019.

 

  1. China affirms that existing U.S.-invested securities joint ventures are allowed to retain their existing licenses when they become U.S.-controlled, U.S. majority-owned, or wholly U.S.- owned securities companies.

 

  1. The Parties shall ensure there are no discriminatory restrictions for private fund managers of the other Party. China shall ensure that there is no prohibition on U.S.-owned private fund managers investing in H shares (i.e., shares of mainland Chinese companies listed on the Hong Kong stock exchange) and that qualified U.S.-owned private fund managers may be approved to provide investment advisory services on a case-by-case basis.

 

  1. The Parties affirm that there are no discriminatory restrictions for institutions of the other Party in futures products, including by allowing the institutions of the other Party to invest in the full scope of futures products in which domestic institutions can invest (including financial, interest-rate, and exchange-rate futures).

 

  1. The United States acknowledges current pending requests by Chinese institutions, including by China International Capital Corporation, and affirms that such requests will be considered expeditiously.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5

 

MACROECONOMIC POLICIES AND EXCHANGE RATE MATTERS AND TRANSPARENCY

 

Article 5.1: General Provisions

 

  1. Each Party shall respect the other Party’s autonomy in monetary policy, in accordance with its domestic law.

 

  1. The Parties recognize that strong fundamentals, sound policies, and a resilient international monetary system are essential to the stability of exchange rates, contributing to strong and sustainable growth and investment. Flexible exchange rates, where feasible, can serve as a shock absorber.

 

  1. The Parties share the objective of pursuing policies that strengthen underlying economic fundamentals, foster growth and transparency, and avoid unsustainable external imbalances.

 

  1. The Parties shall honor currency-related commitments each has undertaken in G20 communiqués, including to refrain from competitive devaluations and the targeting of exchange rates for competitive purposes.

 

Article 5.2: Exchange Rate Practices

 

  1. Each Party confirms that it is bound under the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Articles of Agreement to avoid manipulating exchange rates or the international monetary system in order to prevent effective balance of payments adjustment or to gain an unfair competitive advantage.

 

  1. Each Party should:

 

(a)                achieve and maintain a market-determined exchange rate regime; and

 

(b)               strengthen underlying economic fundamentals, which reinforces the conditions for macroeconomic and exchange rate stability.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The Parties shall refrain from competitive devaluations and not target exchange rates for competitive purposes, including through large-scale, persistent, one-sided intervention in exchange markets.

 

  1. The Parties will communicate regularly and consult on foreign exchange markets, activities, and policies. The Parties will consult with each other regarding the IMF’s assessment of the exchange rate of each Party.

 

Article 5.3: Transparency

 

  1. The Parties affirm that they shall continue to disclose publicly within the prescribed timeframes below:

 

(a)                                monthly foreign exchange reserves data and forward positions according to the IMF’s Data Template on International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity, no later than 30 days after the end of each month;

 

(b)                               quarterly balance of payments for the sub-components of the financial account, including direct investment, portfolio investment, and other investment (loans and receivables), no later than 90 days after the end of each quarter; and

 

(c)                                quarterly exports and imports of goods and services, no later than 90 days after the end of each quarter.

 

  1. The Parties reaffirm and shall continue to consent to the public disclosure by the IMF of:

 

(a)                                each IMF Article IV Staff Report on the country of the Party, including the exchange rate assessment, within four weeks of the IMF Executive Board discussion; and

 

(b)                               confirmation of the Party’s participation in the IMF COFER database.

 

  1. If the IMF does not disclose publicly any items listed in paragraph 2 with respect to a Party, that Party shall request that the IMF disclose publicly those items.

 

Article 5.4: Enforcement Mechanism

 

  1. Issues related to exchange rate policy or transparency shall be referred by either the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury or the Governor of the People’s Bank of China to the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Arrangement established in Chapter 7 (Bilateral Evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

and Dispute Resolution).

 

  1. If there is failure to arrive at a mutually satisfactory resolution under the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Arrangement, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury or the Governor of the People’s Bank of China may also request that the IMF, consistent with its mandate:

 

(a)                                undertake rigorous surveillance of the macroeconomic and exchange rate policies and data transparency and reporting policies of the requested Party; or

 

(b)                               initiate formal consultations and provide input, as appropriate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 6 EXPANDING TRADE

 

Article 6.1: Objectives

 

  1. The Parties acknowledge that trade and economic structural changes resulting from this Agreement and from other actions being taken by China to open up its economy and improve its trade regime should lead to improved trade flows, including significant increases in exports of goods and services to China by the United States and other countries.

 

  1. The Parties believe that expanding trade is conducive to the improvement of their bilateral trade relationship, the optimal allocation of resources, economic restructuring, and sustainable economic development, given the high degree of complementarity in trade between them.

 

  1. The Parties recognize that the United States produces and can supply high-quality, competitively priced goods and services, while China needs to increase the importation of quality and affordable goods and services to satisfy the increasing demand from Chinese consumers.

 

  1. The Parties accordingly seek to work constructively and cooperatively toward an improved bilateral trade relationship and to explore appropriate steps to facilitate increased trade.

 

Article 6.2: Trade Opportunities

 

  1. During the two-year period from January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2021, China shall ensure that purchases and imports into China from the United States of the manufactured goods, agricultural goods, energy products, and services identified in Annex 6.1 exceed the corresponding 2017 baseline amount by no less than $200 billion. Specifically, China shall ensure that:

 

(a)    For the category of manufactured goods identified in Annex 6.1, no less than

$32.9 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2020, and no less than $44.8 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2021;

 

 

 

 

 

(b)    For the category of agricultural goods identified in Annex 6.1, no less than $12.5 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2020, and no less than $19.5 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2021;

 

(c)    For the category of energy products identified in Annex 6.1, no less than $18.5 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2020, and no less than $33.9 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2021; and

 

(d)    For the category of services identified in Annex 6.1, no less than $12.8 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2020, and no less than $25.1 billion above the corresponding 2017 baseline amount is purchased and imported into China from the United States in calendar year 2021.

 

  1. The Parties shall specify the increases in purchases and imports for the subcategories listed in Annex 6.1 as appropriate.

 

  1. The Parties project that the trajectory of increases in the amounts of manufactured goods, agricultural goods, energy products, and services purchased and imported into China from the United States will continue in calendar years 2022 through 2025.

 

  1. The United States shall ensure to take appropriate steps to facilitate the availability of

U.S. goods and services to be purchased and imported into China.

 

  1. The Parties acknowledge that purchases will be made at market prices based on commercial considerations and that market conditions, particularly in the case of agricultural goods, may dictate the timing of purchases within any given year.

 

  1. Official Chinese trade data and official U.S. trade data shall be used to determine whether this Chapter has been implemented. If an analysis of the respective trade data gives rise to conflicting assessments of whether this Chapter has been implemented, the Parties shall engage in consultations.

 

  1. If China believes that its ability to fulfill its obligations under this Chapter is being affected by an action or inaction by the United States or by other circumstances arising in the United States, China is entitled to request consultations with the United States.

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANNEX 6.1

INCREASES IN U.S. EXPORTS TO CHINA OVER 2 YEARS

Unit: USD Billion

 

Product Category

Additional U.S. Exports to China on Top of 2017 Baseline

Year 1

Year 2

2-Year Total

1. Manufactured Goods

32.9

44.8

77.7

1

Industrial machinery

 

 

 

2

Electrical equipment and machinery

3

Pharmaceutical products

4

Aircraft (orders and deliveries)

5

Vehicles

6

Optical and medical instruments

7

Iron and steel

8

Other manufactured goodsa

2. Agricultureb

12.5

19.5

32.0

9

Oilseeds

 

 

 

10

Meat

11

Cereals

12

Cotton

13

Other agricultural commoditiesc

14

Seafoodd

3. Energy

18.5

33.9

52.4

15

Liquefied natural gas

 

 

 

16

Crude oil

17

Refined products

18

Coale

4. Servicesf

12.8

25.1

37.9

19

Charges for use of IP

 

 

 

20

Business travel and tourism

 


a Includes solar-grade polysilicon and other organic and inorganic chemicals, hardwood lumber, integrated circuits (manufactured in U.S.), and chemical products.

b At the request of the United States, China will strive to purchase and import $5 billion per year of the U.S. agricultural products covered by this Chapter, in addition to the minimum amounts set forth herein.

c Includes all other agricultural products, including alfalfa, citrus, dairy, dietary supplements, distilled spirits, dried distiller grains, essential oils, ethanol, fresh baby carrots, fruits and vegetables, ginseng, pet food, processed foods, tree nuts, and wine.

d Includes lobster.

e Includes metallurgical coal.

f All services numbers represent the cross-border supply of services (Mode 1), with the exception of the numbers for financial services and insurance and cloud services, which include both the cross-border supply of services and the supply of services through commercial presence (Mode 3).

 

 

 

 

 

21

Financial services and insurance

 

 

 

22

Other services

23

Cloud and related services

TOTAL

76.7

123.3

200.0

 

 

 

 

 

ATTACHMENT TO ANNEX 6.1

INCREASES IN U.S. EXPORTS TO CHINA OVER 2 YEARS

(This attachment is only authentic in English; when the Parties conclude and verify an agreed Chinese translation of this attachment, both the English and Chinese versions shall be equally authentic)

1. Manufactured Goods

1

Industrial machinery

 

HS Code

Product Description

8401

Nuclear reactors; fuel elements (cartridges), non-irradiated, for nuclear reactors; machinery and apparatus for isotopic separation; parts thereof

8402

Steam or other vapor generating boilers (other than central heating hot water boilers capable also of producing low pressure steam); super-heated water boilers;

8403

Central heating boilers (other than those of heading 8402) and parts thereof

8404

Auxiliary plant for use with boilers of heading 8402 or 8403 (for example, economizers, super-heaters, soot removers, gas recoverers); condensers for steam or other vapor power units; parts thereof

8405

Producer gas or water gas generators, with or without their purifiers; acetylene gas generators and similar water process gas generators, with or without their purifiers; parts thereof

8406

Steam turbines and other vapor turbines, and parts thereof

8407

Spark-ignition reciprocating or rotary internal combustion piston engines

8408

Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engines (diesel or semi-diesel engines)

8409

Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the engines of heading 8407 or 8408

8410

Hydraulic turbines, water wheels and regulators therefor; parts thereof

8411

Turbojets, turbopropellers and other gas turbines, and parts thereof

8412

Other engines and motors, and parts thereof

8413

Pumps for liquids, whether or not fitted with a measuring device; liquid elevators; part thereof

8414

Air or vacuum pumps, air or other gas compressors and fans; ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan, whether or not fitted with filters; parts thereof

8415

Air conditioning machines, comprising a motor-driven fan and elements for changing the temperature and humidity, including those machines in which the humidity cannot be separately regulated; parts thereof

8416

Furnace burners for liquid fuel, for pulverized solid fuel or for gas; mechanical stokers, including their mechanical grates, mechanical ash dischargers and similar appliances; parts thereof

8417

Industrial or laboratory furnaces and ovens, including incinerators, nonelectric, and parts thereof

8418

Refrigerators, freezers and other refrigerating or freezing equipment, electric or other; heat pumps, other than the air conditioning machines of heading 8415; parts thereof

 

8419

Machinery, plant or laboratory equipment, whether or not electrically heated (excluding furnaces, ovens and other equipment of heading 8514), for the treatment of materials by a process involving a change of temperature such as heating, cooking, roasting, distilling, rectifying, sterilizing, pasteurizing, steaming, drying, evaporating, vaporizing,

condensing or cooling, other than machinery or plant of a kind used for domestic purposes; instantaneous or storage water heaters, nonelectric; parts thereof

8420

Calendering or other rolling machines, other than for metals or glass, and cylinders therefor; parts thereof

8421

Centrifuges, including centrifugal dryers; filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus, for liquids or gases; parts thereof

 

8422

Dishwashing machines; machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers; machinery for filling, closing, sealing or labeling bottles, cans, boxes, bags or other containers; machinery for capsuling bottles, jars, tubes and similar

containers; other packing or wrapping machinery (including heat-shrink wrapping machinery); machinery for aerating beverages; parts thereof

 

 

 

 

 

 

8423

Weighing machinery (excluding balances of a sensitivity of 5 cg or better), including weight-operated counting or checking machines; weighing machine weights of all kinds; parts of weighing machinery

 

8424

Mechanical appliances (whether or not hand operated) for projecting, dispersing or spraying liquids or powders; fire extinguishers, whether or not charged; spray guns and similar appliances; steam or sand blasting machines and similar jet projecting machines; parts thereof

8425

Pulley tackle and hoists other than skip hoists; winches and capstans; jacks

8426

Ships' derricks; cranes, including cable cranes; mobile lifting frames, straddle carriers and works trucks fitted with a crane

8427

Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment

8428

Other lifting, handling, loading or unloading machinery (for example, elevators, escalators, conveyors, teleferics)

8429

Self-propelled bulldozers, angledozers, graders, levelers, scrapers, mechanical shovels, excavators, shovel loaders, tamping machines and road rollers

 

8430

Other moving, grading, leveling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting or boring machinery, for earth, minerals

or ores; pile-drivers and pile-extractors; snowplows and snowblowers

8431

Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machinery of headings 8425 to 8430

8432

Agricultural, horticultural or forestry machinery for soil preparation or cultivation; lawn or sports ground rollers; parts thereof

8433

Harvesting or threshing machinery, including straw or fodder balers; grass or hay mowers; machines for cleaning, sorting or grading eggs, fruit or other agricultural produce, other than machinery of heading 8437; parts thereof

8434

Milking machines and dairy machinery, and parts thereof

8435

Presses, crushers and similar machinery, used in the manufacture of wine, cider, fruit juices or similar beverages; parts thereof

8436

Other agricultural, horticultural, forestry, poultry-keeping or bee-keeping machinery, including germination plant fitted with mechanical or thermal equipment; poultry incubators and brooders; parts thereof

 

8437

Machines for cleaning, sorting or grading seed, grain or dried leguminous vegetables, and parts thereof; machinery used in

the milling industry or for the working of cereals or dried leguminous vegetables, other than farm type machinery; parts thereof

8438

Machinery, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter, for the industrial preparation or manufacture of food or drink, other than machinery for the extraction or preparation of animal or fixed vegetable fats or oils; parts thereof

8439

Cellulose pulp, paper and board manufacturing or finishing machines

8440

Bookbinding machinery, including book-sewing machines, and parts thereof

8441

Other machinery for making up paper pulp, paper or paperboard, including cutting machines of all kinds, and parts thereof

 

8442

Machinery, apparatus and equipment (other than the machines of headings 8456 to 8465), for preparing or making plates, cylinders or other printing components; plates, cylinders and other printing components; plates, cylinders and lithographic stones, prepared for printing purposes (for example, planed, grained or polished); parts thereof

8443

Printing machinery used for printing by means of plates, cylinders and other printing components of heading 8442; other printers, copying machines and facsimile machines, whether or not combined; parts and accessories thereof

8444

Machines for extruding, drawing, texturing or cutting man-made textile materials

 

8445

Machines for preparing textile fibers; spinning, doubling or twisting machines and other machinery for producing textile

yarns; textile reeling or winding (including weft winding) machines and machines for preparing textile yarns for use on the machines of heading 8446 or 8447

8446

Weaving machines (looms)

 

 

 

 

 

 

8447

Knitting machines, stitch-bonding machines and machines for making gimped yarn, tulle, lace, embroidery, trimmings, braid or net and machines for tufting

 

8448

Auxiliary machinery for use with machines of heading 8444, 8445, 8446 or 8447 (for example, dobbies, Jacquards, automatic stop motions and shuttle changing mechanisms); parts and accessories suitable for use solely or principally with

the machines of this heading or of heading 8444, 8445, 8446 or 8447 (for example, spindles and spindle flyers, card clothing, combs, extruding nipples, shuttles, healds and heald-frames, hosiery needles)

8449

Machinery for the manufacture or finishing of felt or nonwovens in the piece or in shapes, including machinery for making felt hats; blocks for making hats; parts thereof

8450

Household- or laundry-type washing machines, including machines which both wash and dry; parts thereof

 

8451

Machinery (other than machines of heading 8450) for washing, cleaning, wringing, drying, ironing, pressing (including fusing presses), bleaching, dyeing, dressing, finishing, coating or impregnating textile yarns, fabrics or made up textile

articles and machines for applying the paste to the base fabric or other support used in the manufacture of floor coverings such as linoleum; machines for reeling, unreeling, folding, cutting or pinking textile fabrics; parts thereof

8452

Sewing machines, other than book-sewing machines of heading 8440; furniture, bases and covers specially designed for sewing machines; sewing machine needles; parts thereof

8453

Machinery for preparing, tanning or working hides, skins or leather or for making or repairing footwear or other articles of hides, skins or leather, other than sewing machines; parts thereof

8454

Converters, ladles, ingot molds and casting machines, of a kind used in metallurgy or in metal foundries, and parts thereof

8455

Metal-rolling mills and rolls therefor; parts thereof

8456

Machine tools for working any material by removal of material, by laser or other light or photon beam, ultrasonic, electro- discharge, electro-chemical, electron-beam, ionic-beam or plasma arc processes; water-jet cutting machines

8457

Machining centers, unit construction machines (single station) and multistation transfer machines, for working metal

8458

Lathes (including turning centers) for removing metal

8459

Machine tools (including way-type unit head machines) for drilling, boring, milling, threading or tapping by removing metal, other than lathes (including turning centers) of heading 8458

 

8460

Machine tools for deburring, sharpening, grinding, honing, lapping, polishing or otherwise finishing metal or cermets by

means of grinding stones, abrasives or polishing products, other than gear cutting, gear grinding or gear finishing machines of heading 8461

8461

Machine tools for planing, shaping, slotting, broaching, gear cutting, gear grinding or gear finishing, sawing, cutting-off and other machine tools working by removing metal or cermets, not elsewhere specified or included

 

8462

Machine tools (including presses) for working metal by forging, hammering or die-stamping; machine tools (including presses) for working metal by bending, folding, straightening, flattening, shearing, punching or notching; presses for working metal or metal carbides, not specified above

8463

Other machine tools for working metal or cermets, without removing material

8464

Machine tools for working stone, ceramics, concrete, asbestos-cement or like mineral materials or for cold working glass

 

8465

Machine tools (including machines for nailing, stapling, glueing or otherwise assembling) for working wood, cork, bone, hard rubber, hard plastics or similar hard materials

 

8466

Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or principally with the machines of headings 8456 to 8465, including work or tool holders, self-opening dieheads, dividing heads and other special attachments for the machines; tool holders for any type of tool for working in the hand

8467

Tools for working in the hand, pneumatic, hydraulic or with self-contained electric or nonelectric motor, and parts thereof

8468

Machinery and apparatus for soldering, brazing or welding, whether or not capable of cutting, other than those of heading 8515; gas-operated surface tempering machines and appliances; parts thereof

8469

Typewriters other than printers of heading 8443; word processors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8470

Calculating machines and pocket-size data recording, reproducing and displaying machines with calculating functions; accounting machines, postage-franking machines, ticket-issuing machines and similar machines, incorporating a calculating device; cash registers

 

8471

 

Automatic data processing machines and units thereof; magnetic or optical readers, machines for transcribing data onto data media in coded form and machines for processing such data, not elsewhere specified or included

 

8472

Other office machines (for example, hectograph or stencil duplicating machines, addressing machines, automatic banknote dispensers, coin-sorting machines, coin-counting or wrapping machines, pencil-sharpening machines, perforating or stapling machines)

8473

Parts and accessories (other than covers, carrying cases and the like) suitable for use solely or principally with machines of headings 8470 to 8472

 

8474

Machinery for sorting, screening, separating, washing, crushing, grinding, mixing or kneading earth, stone, ores or other mineral substances, in solid (including powder or paste) form; machinery for agglomerating, shaping or molding solid

mineral fuels, ceramic paste, unhardened cements, plastering materials or other mineral products in powder or paste form; machines for forming foundry molds of sand; parts thereof

8475

Machines for assembling electric or electronic lamps, tubes or flashbulbs, in glass envelopes; machines for manufacturing or hot working glass or glassware; parts thereof

8476

Automatic goods-vending machines (for example, postage stamp, cigarette, food or beverage machines), including money- changing machines; parts thereof

8477

Machinery for working rubber or plastics or for the manufacture of products from these materials, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof

8478

Machinery for preparing or making up tobacco, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof

8479

Machines and mechanical appliances having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof

8480

Molding boxes for metal foundry; mold bases; molding patterns; molds for metal (other than ingot molds), metal carbides, glass, mineral materials, rubber or plastics

8481

Taps, cocks, valves and similar appliances, for pipes, boiler shells, tanks, vats or the like, including pressure-reducing valves and thermostatically controlled valves; parts thereof

8482

Ball or roller bearings, and parts thereof

 

8483

Transmission shafts (including camshafts and crankshafts) and cranks; bearing housings, housed bearings and plain shaft bearings; gears and gearing; ball or roller screws; gear boxes and other speed changers, including torque converters; flywheels and pulleys, including pulley blocks; clutches and shaft couplings (including universal joints); parts thereof

 

8484

Gaskets and similar joints of metal sheeting combined with other material or of two or more layers of metal; sets or assortments of gaskets and similar joints, dissimilar in composition, put up in pouches, envelopes or similar packings; mechanical seals

 

8486

Machines and apparatus of a kind used solely or principally for the manufacture of semiconductor boules or wafers, semiconductor devices, electronic integrated circuits or flat panel displays; machines and apparatus specified in Note 9 (C) to this chapter; parts and accessories

8487

Machinery parts, not containing electrical connectors, insulators, coils, contacts or other electrical features, and not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter

2

Electrical equipment and machinery

 

HS Code

Product Description

8501

Electric motors and generators (excluding generating sets)

 

 

 

 

 

 

8502

Electric generating sets and rotary converters

8503

Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the machines of heading 8501 or 8502

8504

Electrical transformers, static converters (for example, rectifiers) and inductors; parts thereof

 

8505

Electromagnets; permanent magnets and articles intended to become permanent magnets after magnetization; electromagnetic or permanent magnet chucks, clamps and similar holding devices; electromagnetic couplings, clutches and brakes; electromagnetic lifting heads; parts thereof

8506

Primary cells and primary batteries; parts thereof

8507

Electric storage batteries, including separators therefor, whether or not rectangular (including square); parts thereof

8508

Vacuum cleaners; parts thereof

8509

Electromechanical domestic appliances, with self-contained electric motor, other than vacuum cleaners of heading 8508; parts thereof

8510

Shavers, hair clippers and hair-removing appliances, with self-contained electric motor; parts thereof

 

 

8511

 

Electrical ignition or starting equipment of a kind used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines (for example, ignition magnetos, magneto-dynamos, ignition coils, spark plugs and glow plugs, starter motors); generators (for example, dynamos, alternators) and cut-outs of a kind used in conjunction with such engines; parts thereof

 

8512

 

Electrical lighting or signaling equipment (excluding articles of heading 8539), windshield wipers, defrosters and demisters, of a kind used for cycles or motor vehicles; parts thereof

 

8513

Portable electric lamps designed to function by their own source of energy (for example, dry batteries, storage batteries, magnetos), other than lighting equipment of heading 8512; parts thereof

 

8514

Industrial or laboratory electric furnaces and ovens (including those functioning by induction or dielectric loss); other industrial

or laboratory equipment for the heat treatment of materials by induction or dielectric loss; parts thereof

 

8515

Electric (including electrically heated gas), laser or other light or photon beam, ultrasonic, electron beam, magnetic pulse or plasma arc soldering, brazing or welding machines and apparatus, whether or not capable of cutting; electric machines and apparatus for hot spraying of metals or cermets; parts thereof

 

8516

Electric instantaneous or storage water heaters and immersion heaters; electric space heating apparatus and soil heating apparatus; electrothermic hairdressing apparatus (for example, hair dryers, hair curlers, curling tong heaters) and hand

dryers; electric flatirons; other electrothermic appliances of a kind used for domestic purposes; electric heating resistors, other than those of heading 8545; parts thereof

 

8517

Telephone sets, including telephones for cellular networks or for other wireless networks; other apparatus for the transmission or reception of voice, images or other data,

including apparatus for communication in a wired or wireless network (such as a local or wide area network), other than transmission or reception apparatus of heading 8443, 8525,8527 or 8528; parts thereof

 

8518

Microphones and stands therefor; loudspeakers, whether or not mounted in their enclosures; headphones and earphones, whether or not combined with a microphone, and sets consisting of a microphone and one or more loudspeakers; audio- frequency electric amplifiers; electric sound amplifier sets; parts thereof

8519

Sound recording or reproducing apparatus

 

 

 

 

 

 

8521

Video recording or reproducing apparatus, whether or not incorporating a video tuner

8522

Parts and accessories suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8519 or 8521

 

8523

Discs, tapes, solid-state non-volatile storage devices, "smart cards" and other media for the recording of sound or of other

phenomena, whether or not recorded, including matrices and masters for the production of discs, but excluding products of Chapter 37

8525

Transmission apparatus for radio-broadcasting or television, whether or not incorporating reception apparatus or sound recording or reproducing apparatus; television cameras, digital cameras and video camera recorders

8526

Radar apparatus, radio navigational aid apparatus and radio remote control apparatus

8527

Reception apparatus for radiobroadcasting, whether or not combined, in the same housing, with sound recording or reproducing apparatus or a clock

8528

Monitors and projectors, not incorporating television reception apparatus; reception apparatus for television, whether or not incorporating radio-broadcast receivers or sound or video recording or reproducing apparatus

8529

Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of headings 8525 to 8528

8530

Electrical signaling, safety or traffic control equipment for railways, streetcar lines, subways, roads, inland waterways, parking facilities, port installations or airfields (other than those of heading 8608); parts thereof

8531

Electric sound or visual signaling apparatus (for example, bells, sirens, indicator panels, burglar or fire alarms), other than those of heading 8512 or 8530; parts thereof

8532

Electrical capacitors, fixed, variable or adjustable (pre-set); parts thereof

8533

Electrical resistors (including rheostats and potentiometers), other than heating resistors; parts thereof

8534

Printed circuits

 

8535

Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits (for example, switches, fuses, lightning arresters, voltage limiters, surge suppressors, plugs and other connectors, junction boxes), for a voltage exceeding 1,000 V

 

8536

Electrical apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits, or for making connections to or in electrical circuits (for

example, switches, relays, fuses, surge suppressors, plugs, sockets, lamp-holders and other connectors, junction boxes), for a voltage not exceeding 1,000 V; connectors for optical fibers, optical fiber bundles or cables

 

8537

Boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets and other bases, equipped with two or more apparatus of heading 8535 or 8536,

for electric control or the distribution of electricity, including those incorporating instruments or apparatus of chapter 90, and numerical control apparatus, other than switching apparatus of heading 8517

8538

Parts suitable for use solely or principally with the apparatus of heading 8535, 8536 or 8537

8539

Electrical filament or discharge lamps, including sealed beam lamp units and ultraviolet or infrared lamps; arc lamps; light-emitting diode (LED) lamps; parts thereof

8540

Thermionic, cold cathode or photocathode tubes (for example, vacuum or vapor or gas filled tubes, mercury arc rectifying tubes, cathode-ray tubes, television camera tubes); parts thereof

 

8541

Diodes, transistors and similar semiconductor devices; photosensitive semiconductor devices, including photovoltaic cells

whether or not assembled in modules or made up into panels; light-emitting diodes (LED); mounted piezoelectric crystals; parts thereof

8543

Electrical machines and apparatus, having individual functions, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter; parts thereof

 

8544

Insulated (including enameled or anodized) wire, cable (including coaxial cable) and other insulated electric conductors,

whether or not fitted with connectors; optical fiber cables, made up of individually sheathed fibers, whether or not assembled with electric conductors or fitted with connectors

8545

Carbon electrodes, carbon brushes, lamp carbons, battery carbons and other articles of graphite or other carbon, with or without metal, of a kind used for electrical purposes

8546

Electrical insulators of any material

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8547

Insulating fittings for electrical machines, appliances or equipment, being fittings wholly of insulating material apart from any minor components of metal (for example, threaded sockets) incorporated during molding solely for the purposes of

assembly, other than insulators of heading 8546; electrical conduit tubing and joints therefor, of base metal lined with insulating material

 

8548

Waste and scrap of primary cells, primary batteries and electric storage batteries; spent primary cells, spent primary

batteries and spent electric storage batteries; electrical parts of machinery or apparatus, not specified or included elsewhere in this chapter

3

Pharmaceutical products

 

HS Code

Product Description

 

3001

Glands and other organs for organotherapeutic uses, dried, whether or not powdered; extracts of glands or other organs or

of their secretions for organotherapeutic uses; heparin and its salts; other human or animal substances prepared for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, not elsewhere specified or included

 

3002

Human blood; animal blood prepared for therapeutic, prophylactic or diagnostic uses; antisera, other blood fractions and

immunological products, whether or not modified or obtained by means of biotechnological processes; vaccines, toxins, cultures of micro-organisms (excluding yeasts) and similar products

3003

Medicaments (excluding goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of two or more constituents which have been mixed together for therapeutic or prophylactic uses, not put up in measured doses or in forms or packings for retail sale

 

3004

Medicaments (excluding goods of heading 3002, 3005 or 3006) consisting of mixed or unmixed products for therapeutic

or prophylactic uses, put up in measured doses (including those in the form of transdermal administration systems) or in forms or packings for retail sale

 

3005

Wadding, gauze, bandages and similar articles (for example, dressings, adhesive plasters, poultices), impregnated or

coated with pharmaceutical substances or put up in forms or packings for retail sale for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary purposes

3006

Pharmaceutical goods specified in note 4 to this chapter

4

Aircraft (orders and deliveries)

 

HS Code

Product Description

8802

Other aircraft (for example, helicopters, airplanes); spacecraft (including satellites) and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles

5

Vehicles

 

HS Code

Product Description

8703

Motor cars and other motor vehicles principally designed for the transport of persons (other than those of heading 8702), including station wagons and racing cars

8704

Motor vehicles for the transport of goods

6

Optical and medical instruments

 

HS Code

Product Description

9002

Lenses, prisms, mirrors and other optical elements, of any material, mounted, being parts of or fittings for instruments or apparatus, other than such elements of glass not optically worked; parts and accessories thereof

9003

Frames and mountings for spectacles, goggles or the like, and parts thereof

9011

Compound optical microscopes, including those for photomicrography, cinemicrography or microprojection; parts and accessories thereof

9012

Microscopes other than optical microscopes; diffraction apparatus; parts and accessories thereof

9018

Instruments and appliances used in medical, surgical, dental or veterinary sciences, including scintigraphic apparatus, other electro-medical apparatus and sight-testing instruments; parts and accessories thereof

9019

Mechano-therapy appliances; massage apparatus; psychological aptitude-testing apparatus; ozone therapy, oxygen therapy, aerosol therapy, artificial respiration or other therapeutic respiration apparatus; parts and accessories thereof

 

9020

Other breathing appliances and gas masks, excluding protective masks having neither mechanical parts nor replaceable filters; parts and accessories thereof

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9021

Orthopedic appliances, including crutches, surgical belts and trusses; splints and other fracture appliances; artificial parts

of the body; hearing aids and other appliances which are worn or carried, or implanted in the body, to compensate for a defect or disability; parts and accessories thereof

 

9022

Apparatus based on the use of X-rays or of alpha, beta or gamma radiations, whether or not for medical, surgical, dental or veterinary uses, including radiography or radiotherapy apparatus, X-ray tubes and other X-ray generators, high tension

generators, control panels and desks, screens, examination or treatment tables, chairs and the like; parts and accessories thereof

7

Iron and steel

 

HS Code

Product Description

7201

Pig iron and spiegeleisen in pigs, blocks or other primary forms

7202

Ferroalloys

7203

Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of iron ore and other spongy ferrous products, in lumps, pellets or similar forms; iron having a minimum purity by weight of 99.94 percent, in lumps, pellets or similar forms

7204

Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron orsteel

7205

Granules and powders, of pig iron, spiegeleisen, iron or steel

7206

Iron and nonalloy steel in ingots or other primary forms (excluding iron of heading 7203)

7207

Semifinished products of iron or nonalloy steel

7208

Flat-rolled products of iron or nonalloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, hot-rolled, not clad, plated or coated

7209

Flat-rolled products of iron or nonalloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, cold-rolled (cold-reduced), not clad, plated or coated

7210

Flat-rolled products of iron or nonalloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, clad, plated or coated

7211

Flat-rolled products of iron or nonalloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm, not clad, plated or coated

7212

Flat-rolled products of iron or nonalloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm, clad, plated or coated

7213

Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils, of iron or nonalloy steel

 

7214

Other bars and rods of iron or nonalloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn or hot-extruded, but including

those twisted after rolling

7215

Other bars and rods of iron or nonalloy steel

7216

Angles, shapes and sections of iron or nonalloy steel

7217

Wire of iron or nonalloy steel

7218

Stainless steel in ingots or other primary forms; semi-finished products of stainless steel

7219

Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of 600 mm or more

7220

Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of less than 600 mm

7221

Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils, of stainless steel

7222

Other bars and rods of stainless steel; angles, shapes and sections of stainless steel

7223

Wire of stainless steel

7224

Other alloy steel in ingots or other primary forms; semi-finished products of other alloy steel

7225

Flat-rolled products of other alloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more

7226

Flat-rolled products of other alloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm

7227

Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils, of other alloy steel

 

 

 

 

 

 

7228

Other bars and rods of other alloy steel; angles, shapes and sections, of other alloy steel; hollow drill bars and rods, of alloy or non-alloy steel

7229

Wire of other alloy steel

7301

Sheet piling of iron or steel, whether or not drilled, punched or made from assembled elements; welded angles, shapes and sections, of iron or steel

 

7302

Railway or tramway track construction material of iron or steel, the following rails, check-rails and rack rails, switch blades, crossing frogs, point rods and other crossing pieces, sleepers (cross-ties), fish-plates, chairs, chair wedges, sole plates (base plates), rail clips, bedplates, ties and other material specialized for jointing or fixing rails

7303

Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, of cast iron

7304

Tubes, pipes and hollow profiles, seamless, of iron (other than cast iron) or steel

7305

Other tubes and pipes (for example, welded, riveted or similarly closed), having circular cross sections, the external diameter of which exceeds 406.4 mm, of iron or steel

7307

Tube or pipe fittings (for example, couplings, elbows, sleeves), of iron or steel

8

Other manufactured goods

 

HS Code

Product Description

 

2201

Waters, including natural or artificial mineral waters and aerated waters, not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter nor flavored; ice and snow

2202

Waters, including mineral waters and aerated waters, containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or flavored, and other nonalcoholic beverages, not including fruit or vegetable juices of heading 2009

2801

Fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine

2802

Sulfur, sublimed or precipitated; colloidal sulfur

2803

Carbon (carbon blacks and other forms of carbon not elsewhere specified or included)

2804

Hydrogen, rare gases and other nonmetals (including solar-grade polysilicon)

2805

Alkali or alkaline-earth metals; rare-earth metals, scandium and yttrium, whether or not intermixed or interalloyed; mercury

2806

Hydrogen chloride (Hydrochloric acid); chlorosulfuric acid

2807

Sulfuric acid; oleum

2808

Nitric acid; sulfonitric acids

2809

Diphosphorus pentaoxide; phosphoric acid;polyphosphoric acids, whether or not chemically defined

2810

Oxides of boron; boric acids

2811

Other inorganic acids and other inorganic oxygen compounds of nonmetals

2812

Halides and halide oxides of nonmetals

2813

Sulfides of nonmetals; commercial phosphorus trisulfide

2814

Ammonia, anhydrous or in aqueous solution

2815

Sodium hydroxide (Caustic soda); potassium hydroxide (Caustic potash); peroxides of sodium or potassium

2816

Hydroxide and peroxide of magnesium; oxides, hydroxides and peroxides, of strontium or barium

2817

Zinc oxide; zinc peroxide

2818

Artificial corundum, whether or not chemically defined; aluminum oxide; aluminum hydroxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

2819

Chromium oxides and hydroxides

2820

Manganese oxides

2821

Iron oxides and hydroxides; earth colors containing 70 percent or more by weight of combined iron evaluated as Fe2O3

2822

Cobalt oxides and hydroxides; commercial cobalt oxides

2823

Titanium oxides

2824

Lead oxides; red lead and orange lead

2825

Hydrazine and hydroxylamine and their inorganic salts; other inorganic bases; other metal oxides, hydroxides and peroxides

2826

Fluorides; fluorosilicates, fluoroaluminates and other complex fluorine salts

2827

Chlorides, chloride oxides and chloride hydroxides; bromides and bromide oxides; iodides and iodide oxides

2828

Hypochlorites; commercial calcium hypochlorite; chlorites; hypobromites

2829

Chlorates and perchlorates; bromates and perbromates; iodates and periodates

2830

Sulfides; polysulfides, whether or not chemically defined

2831

Dithionites and sulfoxylates

2832

Sulfites; thiosulfates

2833

Sulfates; alums; peroxosulfates (persulfates)

2834

Nitrites; nitrates

2835

Phosphinates (hypophosphites), phosphonates (phosphites) and phosphates; polyphosphates, whether or not chemically defined

2836

Carbonates; peroxocarbonates (percarbonates); commercial ammonium carbonate containing ammonium carbamate

2837

Cyanides, cyanide oxides and complex cyanides

2839

Silicates; commercial alkali metal silicates

2840

Borates; peroxoborates (perborates)

2841

Salts of oxometallic or peroxometallic acids

2842

Other salts of inorganic acids or peroxoacids (including aluminosilicates whether or not chemically defined), other than azides

2843

Colloidal precious metals; inorganic or organic compounds of precious metals, whether or not chemically defined; amalgams of precious metals

2844

Radioactive chemical elements and radioactive isotopes (including the fissile or fertile chemical elements and isotopes) and their compounds; mixtures and residues containing these products

2845

Isotopes other than those of heading 2844; compounds, inorganic or organic, of such isotopes, whether or not chemically defined

2846

Compounds, inorganic or organic, of rare-earth metals, of yttrium or of scandium, or of mixtures of these metals

2847

Hydrogen peroxide, whether or not solidified with urea

2848

Phosphides, whether or not chemically defined, does not include ferrophosphorus

2849

Carbides, whether or not chemically defined

2850

Hydrides, nitrides, azides, silicides and borides, whether or not chemically defined, other than compounds which are also carbides of heading 2849

2852

Inorganic or organic compounds of mercury, whether or not chemically defined, excluding amalgams

2853

Other inorganic compounds (including distilled or conductivity water and water of similar purity); liquid air (whether or not rare gases have been removed); compressed air; amalgams, other than amalgams of precious metals

2901

Acyclic hydrocarbons

 

 

 

 

 

 

2902

Cyclic hydrocarbons

2903

Halogenated derivatives of hydrocarbons

2904

Sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives of hydrocarbons, whether or not halogenated

2905

Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives (excluding methanol, mannitol, and sorbitol)

2906

Cyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2907

Phenols; phenol-alcohols

2908

Halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives of phenols or phenol-alcohols

2909

Ethers, ether-alcohols, ether-phenols, ether-alcohol- phenols, alcohol peroxides, ether peroxides, ketone peroxides (whether or not chemically defined), and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2910

Epoxides, epoxyalcohols, epoxyphenols and epoxyethers, with a three-membered ring, and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2911

Acetals and hemiacetals, whether or not with other oxygen function, and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2912

Aldehydes, whether or not with other oxygen function; cyclic polymers of aldehydes; paraformaldehyde

2913

Halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives of products of heading 2912

2914

Ketones and quinones, whether or not with other oxygen function, and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated, or nitrosated derivatives

2915

Saturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2916

Unsaturated acyclic monocarboxylic acids, cyclic monocarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2917

Polycarboxylic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2918

Carboxylic acids with additional oxygen function and their anhydrides, halides, peroxides and peroxyacids; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2919

Phosphoric esters and their salts, including lactophosphates; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2920

Esters of other inorganic acids of nonmetals (excluding esters of hydrogen halides) and their salts; their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

2921

Amine-function compounds

2922

Oxygen-function amino-compounds

2923

Quaternary ammonium salts and hydroxides; lecithins and other phosphoaminolipids, whether or not chemically defined

2924

Carboxyamide-function compounds; amide-function compounds of carbonic acid

2925

Carboxyimide-function compounds (including saccharin and its salts) and imine-function compounds

2926

Nitrile-function compounds

2927

Diazo-, azo- or azoxy-compounds

2928

Organic derivatives of hydrazine or of hydroxylamine

2929

Compounds with other nitrogen function

2930

Organo-sulfur compounds

2931

Other organo-inorganic compounds

2932

Heterocyclic compounds with oxygen hetero-atom(s) only

2933

Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom(s) only

 

 

 

 

 

 

2934

Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not chemically defined; other heterocyclic compounds

2935

Sulfonamides

2936

Provitamins and vitamins, natural or reproduced by synthesis (including natural concentrates), derivatives thereof used primarily as vitamins, and intermixtures of the foregoing, whether or not in any solvent

2937

Hormones, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, natural or reproduced by synthesis; derivatives and structural analogues thereof, including chain modified polypeptides, used primarily as hormones

2938

Glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives

2939

Alkaloids, natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives

2940

Sugars, chemically pure, other than sucrose, lactose, maltose, glucose and fructose; sugar ethers, sugar acetals and sugar esters, and their salts, other than products of heading 2937, 2938 or 2939

2941

Antibiotics

2942

Other organic compounds

2933

Heterocyclic compounds with nitrogen hetero-atom(s) only

2934

Nucleic acids and their salts, whether or not chemically defined; other heterocyclic compounds

2935

Sulfonamides

2936

Provitamins and vitamins, natural or reproduced by synthesis (including natural concentrates), derivatives thereof used primarily as vitamins, and intermixtures of the foregoing, whether or not in any solvent

2937

Hormones, prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes, natural or reproduced by synthesis; derivatives and structural analogues thereof, including chain modified polypeptides, used primarily as hormones

2938

Glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives

2939

Alkaloids, natural or reproduced by synthesis, and their salts, ethers, esters and other derivatives

2940

Sugars, chemically pure, other than sucrose, lactose, maltose, glucose and fructose; sugar ethers, sugar acetals and sugar esters, and their salts, other than products of heading 2937, 2938 or 2939

2941

Antibiotics

2942

Other organic compounds

3303

Perfumes and toilet waters

3304

Beauty or make-up preparations and preparations for the care of the skin (other than medicaments), including sunscreen or sun tan preparations; manicure or pedicure preparations

3305

Preparations for use on the hair

3306

Preparations for oral or dental hygiene, including denture fixative pastes and powders; yarn used to clean between the teeth (dental floss), in individual retail packages

 

3307

Pre-shave, shaving or after-shave preparations, personal deodorants, bath preparations, depilatories and other perfumery,

cosmetic or toilet preparations, not elsewhere specified or included; prepared room deodorizers, whether or not perfumed or having disinfectant properties

4401

Fuel wood, in logs, in billets, in twigs, in faggots or in similar forms; wood in chips or particles; sawdust and wood waste and scrap, whether or not agglomerated in logs, briquettes, pellets or similar forms

4402

Wood charcoal (including shell or nut charcoal), whether or not agglomerated

4403

Wood in the rough, whether or not stripped of bark or sap- wood, or roughly squared

 

4404

Hoopwood; split poles; piles, pickets and stakes of wood, pointed but not sawn lengthwise; wooden sticks, roughly

trimmed but not turned, bent or otherwise worked, suitable for the manufacture of walking-sticks, umbrellas, tool handles or the like; chipwood and the like

 

 

 

 

 

 

4405

Wood wool (excelsior); wood flour

4406

Railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood

4407

Wood sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed, of a thickness exceeding 6 mm

 

4408

Sheets for veneering (including those obtained by slicing laminated wood), for plywood or for similar laminated wood and

other wood, sawn lengthwise, sliced or peeled, whether or not planed, sanded, spliced or end-jointed, of a thickness not exceeding 6 mm

 

4409

Wood (including strips and friezes for parquet flooring, not assembled) continuously shaped (tongued, grooved, rebated,

chamfered, V-jointed, beaded, molded, rounded or the like) along any of its edges, ends or faces, whether or not planed, sanded or end-jointed

4410

Particle board, oriented strand board (OSB) and similar board (for example, waferboard) of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not agglomerated with resins or other organic binding substances

4411

Fiberboard of wood or other ligneous materials, whether or not bonded with resins or other organic substances

4412

Plywood, veneered panels and similar laminated wood

4413

Densified wood, in blocks, plates, strips or profile shapes

4414

Wooden frames for paintings, photographs, mirrors or similar objects

4415

Packing cases, boxes, crates, drums and similar packings, of wood; cable-drums, of wood; pallets, box-pallets and other load boards, of wood; pallet collars of wood

4416

Casks, barrels, vats, tubs and other coopers' products and parts thereof, of wood, including staves

4417

Tools, tool bodies, tool handles, broom or brush bodies and handles, of wood; boot or shoe lasts and trees, of wood

4418

Builders' joinery and carpentry of wood, including cellular wood panels and assembled flooring panels; shingles and shakes

4419

Tableware and kitchenware, of wood

4420

Wood marquetry and inlaid wood; caskets and cases for jewelry or cutlery and similar articles, of wood; statuettes and other ornaments, of wood; wooden articles of furniture not falling within chapter 94

4421

Other articles of wood

4501

Natural cork, raw or simply prepared; waste cork; crushed, granulated or ground cork

4503

Articles of natural cork

4504

Agglomerated cork (with or without a binding substance) and articles of agglomerated cork

 

4601

Plaits and similar products of plaiting materials, whether or not assembled into strips; plaiting materials, plaits and similar

products of plaiting materials, bound together in parallel strands or woven, in sheet form, whether or not being finished articles (for example, mats, matting, screens)

4602

Basketwork, wickerwork and other articles, made directly to shape from plaiting materials or made up from articles of heading 4601; articles of loofah

8542

Electronic integrated circuits; parts thereof

 

 

2. Agriculture

9

Oilseeds

 

HS Code

Product Description

1201

Soybeans, whether or not broken

10

Meat

 

 

 

 

 

 

HS Code

Product Description

0201

Meat of bovine animals, fresh or chilled

0202

Meat of bovine animals, frozen

0203

Meat of swine, fresh, chilled, or frozen

0204

Meat of sheep or goats, fresh, chilled or frozen

0206

Edible offal of bovine animals, swine, sheep, goats, horses, asses, mules or hinnies, fresh, chilled or frozen

0207

Meat and edible offal, of the poultry of heading 0105, fresh, chilled or frozen

0208

Other meat and edible meat offal, fresh, chilled or frozen

0209

Pig fat, free of lean meat, and poultry fat, not rendered or otherwise extracted, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked

0210

Meat and edible meat offal, salted, in brine, dried or smoked; edible flours and meals of meat or meat offal

1601

Sausages and similar products, of meat, meat offal or blood; food preparations based on these products

1602

Other prepared or preserved meat, meat offal or blood

1603

Extracts and juices of meat (not related to fish or crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates)

11

Cereals

 

HS Code

Product Description

1001

Wheat and meslin

1003

Barley

1004

Oats

1005

Corn (maize)

1006

Rice

1007

Grain sorghum

1008

Buckwheat, millet and canary seeds; other cereals (including wild rice)

1101

Wheat or meslin flour

1102

Cereal flours other than of wheat or meslin

1103

Cereal groats, meal and pellets

1104

Cereal grains, otherwise worked (hulled, rolled etc.), except rice (heading 1006); germ of cereals, whole, rolled, flaked or ground

1105

Flour, meal flakes, granules and pellets of potatoes

1106

Flour and meal of dried leguminous vegetables (hd. 0713), of sago or roots etc. (hd. 0714); flour, meal and powder of fruit and nuts etc. (ch. 8)

1107

Malt, whether or not roasted

1108

Starches; inulin

 

 

 

 

 

 

1109

Wheat gluten, whether or not dried

12

Cotton

 

HS Code

Product Description

5201

Cotton, not carded or combed

5202

Cotton waste (including yarn waste and garnetted stock)

5203

Cotton, carded or combed

13

Other agricultural commodities

 

HS Code

Product Description

0101

Horses, asses, mules and hinnies, live

0102

Bovine animals, live

0103

Swine, live

0104

Sheep and goats, live

0105

Poultry, live; chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and guineas

0106

Animals, live, nesoi

0205

Meat of horses, asses, mules or hinnies, fresh, chilled or frozen

0401

Milk and cream, not concentrated nor containing added sweetening

0402

Milk and cream, concentrated or containing added sweetening

0403

Buttermilk, curdled milk and cream, yogurt, kephir etc., whether or not flavored etc. or containing added fruit or cocoa

0404

Whey and other products consisting of natural milk constituents, whether or not concentrated or sweetened, nesoi

0405

Butter and other fats and oils derived from milk

0406

Cheese and curd

0407

Birds' eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cooked

0408

Birds' eggs, not in shell and egg yolks, fresh, dried, cooked by steam etc., molded, frozen or otherwise preserved, sweetened or not

0409

Honey, natural

0410

Edible products of animal origin, nesoi

0501

Human hair, unworked, whether or not washed or scoured; waste of human hair

0502

Pigs', hogs' or boars' bristles and hair; badger and other brushmaking hair; waste of such bristles or hair

 

 

 

 

 

 

0504

Animal guts, bladders and stomachs (other than fish), whole and pieces thereof, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, dried or smoked

0505

Bird skins and other feathered parts of birds, feathers and parts of feathers and down, not further worked than cleaned etc.

0506

Bones and horn-cores, unworked, defatted, simply prepared (not cut to shape), treated with acid etc.; powder and waste of these products

0507

Ivory, tortoise-shell, whalebone and whalebone hair, horns, hooves, claws etc., unworked or simply prepared, not cut to shape

0510

Ambergris, castoreum, civet and musk; cantharides; bile; glands and other animal products for use in pharmaceutical products, fresh, frozen, etc.

0601

Bulbs, tubers, tuberous roots, corms etc., dormant, in growth or in flower; chicory plants and roots for planting

0602

Live plants nesoi (including their roots), cuttings and slips; mushroom spawn

0603

Cut flowers and buds suitable for bouquets or ornamental purposes, fresh, dried, dyed, bleached, impregnated or otherwise prepared

0604

Foliage, branches, grasses, mosses etc. (no flowers or buds), for bouquets or ornamental purposes, fresh, dried, dyed, bleached etc.

0701

Potatoes (other than sweet potatoes), fresh or chilled

0702

Tomatoes, fresh or chilled

0703

Onions, shallots, garlic, leeks and other alliaceous vegetables, fresh or chilled

0704

Cabbages, cauliflower, kohlrabi, kale and similar edible brassicas, fresh or chilled

0705

Lettuce (lactuca sativa) and chicory (cichorium spp.), fresh or chilled

0706

Carrots, turnips, salad beets, salsify, radishes and similar edible roots, fresh or chilled

0707

Cucumbers and gherkins, fresh or chilled

0708

Leguminous vegetables, shelled or unshelled, fresh or chilled

0709

Vegetables nesoi, fresh or chilled

0710

Vegetables (uncooked or cooked by steam or boiling water), frozen

0711

Vegetables provisionally preserved (by sulfur dioxide gas, in brine etc.), but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption

0712

Vegetables, dried, whole, cut, sliced, broken or in powder, but not further prepared

0713

Leguminous vegetables, dried shelled

0714

Cassava (manioc), arrowroot, salep, jerusalem artichokes, sweet potatoes and similar roots etc. (high starch etc. content), fresh or dried; sago pith

0801

Coconuts, brazil nuts and cashew nuts, fresh or dried

0802

Nuts nesoi, fresh or dried

0803

Bananas, including plantains, fresh or dried

0804

Dates, figs, pineapples, avocados, guavas, mangoes and mangosteens, fresh or dried

 

 

 

 

 

 

0805

Citrus fruit, fresh or dried

0806

Grapes, fresh or dried

0807

Melons (including watermelons) and papayas (papaws), fresh

0808

Apples, pears and quinces, fresh

0809

Apricots, cherries, peaches (including nectarines), plums (including prune plums) and sloes, fresh

0810

Fruit nesoi, fresh

0811

Fruit and nuts (uncooked or cooked by steam or boiling water), whether not sweetened, frozen

0812

Fruit and nuts provisionally preserved (by sulfur dioxide gas, in brine etc.), but unsuitable in that state for immediate consumption

0813

Fruit, dried, nesoi (other than those of headings 0801 to 0806); mixtures of nuts or dried fruits of this chapter

0814

Peel of citrus fruit or melons (including watermelons), fresh, frozen, dried or provisionally preserved

0901

Coffee, whether or not roasted or decaffeinated; coffee husks and skins; coffee substitutes containing coffee

0902

Tea, whether or not flavored

0903

Mate

0904

Pepper of the genus piper; fruits of the genus capsicum (peppers) or of the genus pimenta, dried, crushed or ground

0905

Vanilla

0906

Cinnamon and cinnamon-tree flowers

0907

Cloves (whole fruit, cloves and stems)

0908

Nutmeg, mace and cardamons

0909

Seeds of anise, badian, fennel, coriander, cumin or caraway; juniper berries

0910

Ginger, saffron, tumeric (curcuma), thyme, bay leaves, curry and other spices

1002

Rye

1202

Peanuts (ground-nuts), not roasted or otherwise cooked, whether or not shelled or broken

1203

Copra

1204

Flaxseed (linseed), whether or not broken

1205

Rape or colza seeds, whether or not broken

1206

Sunflower seeds, whether or not broken

1207

Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits nesoi, whether or not broken

 

 

 

 

 

 

1208

Flours and meals of oil seeds or oleaginous fruits, other than those of mustard

1209

Seeds, fruit and spores, of a kind used for sowing

1210

Hop cones, fresh or dried, whether or not ground, powdered or in the form of pellets; lupulin

1211

Plants and parts of plants (including seeds and fruits), used in perfumery, pharmacy, or for insecticidal or similar purposes, fresh or dried

1212

Locust beans, seaweeds etc., sugar beet and sugar cane; fruit stones and kernels and other vegetable products used for human consumption, nesoi

1213

Cereal straw and husks, unprepared, whether or not chopped, ground, pressed or in the form of pellets

1214

Rutabagas (swedes), mangolds, hay, alfalfa (lucerne), clover, forage kale, lupines and similar forage products, whether or not in the form of pellets

1301

Lac; natural gums, resins, gum-resins and balsams

1302

Vegetable saps and extracts; pectic substances, pectinates and pectates; agar-agar and other mucilages and thickeners, derived from vegetable products

1401

Vegetable materials used primarily for plaiting, including bamboos, rattans, reeds, rushes, osier, raffia, processed cereal straw and lime bark

1404

Vegetable products, nesoi

1501

Pig fat (including lard) and poultry fat, other than of heading 0209 or 1503

1502

Fats of bovine animals, sheep or goats, other than those of heading 1503

1503

Lard stearin, lard oil, oleostearin, oleo-oil and tallow oil, not emulsified or mixed or otherwise prepared

1505

Wool grease and fatty substances derived therefrom, including lanolin

1506

Animal fats and oils and their fractions, nesoi, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1507

Soybean oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1508

Peanut (ground-nut) oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1509

Olive oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1510

Olive-residue oil and blends of olive oil and oil-residue oil, not chemically modified

1511

Palm oil and its fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1512

Sunflower-seed, safflower or cottonseed oil, and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1513

Coconut (copra), palm kernel or babassu oil and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1514

Rapeseed, colza or mustard oil and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1515

Fixed vegetable fats and oils (including jojoba oil) and their fractions, whether or not refined, but not chemically modified

1516

Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their fractions, partly or wholly hydrogenated etc., whether or not refined, but not further prepared

 

 

 

 

 

 

1517

Margarine; edible mixtures or preparations of animal or vegetable fats or oils or of fractions of different specified fats and oils

1518

Animal or vegetable fats, oils and their fractions, boiled, oxidized, etc.; inedible mixes or preparations of animal or vegetable fats and oils, nesoi

1520

Glycerol (glycerine), whether or not pure; glycerol waters and glycerol lyes

1521

Vegetable waxes (other than triglycerides), beeswax, other insect waxes and spermaceti, whether or not refined or colored

1522

Degras; residues resulting from the treatment of fatty substances or animal or vegetable waxes

1701

Cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form

1702

Sugars nesoi, including chemically pure lactose, maltose, glucose and fructose in solid form; sugar syrups (plain); artificial honey; caramel

1703

Molasses resulting from the extraction or refining of sugar

1704

Sugar confectionary (including white chocolate), not containing cocoa

1801

Cocoa beans, whole or broken, raw or roasted

1802

Cocoa shells, husks, skins and other cocoa waste

1803

Cocoa paste, whether or not defatted

1804

Cocoa butter, fat and oil

1805

Cocoa powder, not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter

1806

Chocolate and other food preparations containing cocoa

1901

Malt extract; food preparations of flour, meal etc. containing under 40% cocoa nesoi; food preparations of milk etc. containing under 50% cocoa nesoi

1902

Pasta, whether or not cooked or stuffed or otherwise prepared, including spaghetti, lasagna, noodles etc.; couscous, whether or not prepared

1903

Tapioca and substitutes therefor prepared from starch, in the form of flakes, grains, pearls, siftings or similar forms

1904

Prepared foods from swelling or roasting cereals or products; cereals (excluding corn), in grain form flakes or worked grain prepared nesoi

1905

Bread, pastry, cakes, biscuits and other bakers' wares; communion wafers, empty capsules for medicine etc., sealing wafers, rice paper etc.

2001

Vegetables, fruit, nuts and other edible parts of plants, prepared or preserved by vinegar or acetic acid

2002

Tomatoes prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid

2003

Mushrooms and truffles, prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid

2004

Vegetables, other than tomatoes, mushrooms and truffles, prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid, frozen, excluding products of 2006

2005

Vegetables, other than tomatoes, mushrooms and truffles, prepared or preserved otherwise than by vinegar or acetic acid, not frozen excluding products of 2006

2006

Vegetables, fruit, nuts, fruit-peel and other parts of plants preserved by sugar (drained, glace or crystallized)

 

 

 

 

 

 

2007

Jams, fruit jellies, marmalades, fruit or nut puree and fruit or nut pastes, being cooked preparations, whether or not containing added sweetening

2008

Fruit, nuts and other edible parts of plants, otherwise prepared or preserved, whether or not containing added sweetening or spirit, nesoi

2009

Fruit juices not fortified with vitamins or minerals (including grape must) & vegetable juices, unfermented & not containing added spirit, whether or not containing added sweetening

2101

Extracts, essences and concentrates of coffee, tea or mate and preparations thereof; roasted chicory etc. and its extracts, essences and concentrates

2102

Yeasts; other single-cell micro-organisms, dead (other than medicinal vaccines of heading 3002); prepared baking powders

2103

Sauces and preparations therefor; mixed condiments and mixed seasonings; mustard flour and meal and prepared mustard

2104

Soups and broths and preparations therefor; homogenized composite food preparations

2105

Ice cream and other edible ice, whether or not containing cocoa

2106

Food preparations not elsewhere specified or included

2203

Beer made from malt

2204

Wine of fresh grapes, including fortified wines; grape must other than that of heading 2009

2205

Vermouth and other wine of fresh grapes flavored with plants or aromatic substances

2206

Other fermented beverages (for example, cider, perry, mead, sakè); mixtures of fermented beverages and mixtures of fermented beverages and non-alcoholic beverages, not elsewhere specified or included

2207

Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of 80 percent vol. or higher; ethyl alcohol and other spirits, denatured, of any strength

2208

Undenatured ethyl alcohol of an alcoholic strength by volume of less than 80 percent vol.; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages

2209

Vinegar and substitutes for vinegar obtained from acetic acid

2301

Flours, meals and pellets, of meat or meat offal, of fish or of crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates, unfit for human consumption; greaves (cracklings)

2302

Bran, sharps and other residues (in pellets or not), derived from the sifting, milling or other working of cereals or leguminous plants

2303

Residues of starch manufacture and other residues and waste of sugar manufacture, brewing or distilling dregs and waste, whether or not in pellets

2304

Soybean oilcake and other solid residues resulting from the extraction of soy bean oil, whether or not ground or in the form of pellets

2305

Peanut (ground-nut) oilcake and other solid residues resulting from the extraction of peanut (ground-nut) oil, whether or not ground or in pellets

2306

Oilcake and other solid residues (in pellets or not), resulting from the extraction of vegetable fats or oils (except from soybeans or peanuts), nesoi

2307

Wine lees; argol

2308

Vegetable materials and waste, vegetable residues and by-products (in pellets or not), used in animal feeding, nesoi

2309

Preparations of a kind used in animal feeding

2401

Tobacco, unmanufactured (whether or not threshed or similarly processed); tobacco refuse

 

 

 

 

 

 

2402

Cigars, cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes, of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes

2403

Tobacco and tobacco substitute manufactures, nesoi; homogenized or reconstituted tobacco; tobacco extracts and essences

290543/

290544

Acyclic alcohols and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated or nitrosated derivatives

3301

Essential oils, concentrates and absolutes; resinoid; extracted oleoresins; concentrations of essential oils and terpenic byproducts; aqueous solutions etc. of essential oil

 

3302

Mixtures of odoriferous substances and mixtures (including alcoholic solutions) with a basis of one or more of these

substances, of a kind used as raw materials in industry; other preparations based on odoriferous substances, of a kind used for the manufacture of beverages

3501

Casein, caseinates and other casein derivatives; casein glues

3502

Albumins (including concentrates with two or more whey proteins, containing by weight more than 80% whey proteins calculated on dry matter), albuminates & other albumin derivatives

3503

Gelatin (including gelatin in rectangular or square sheets) and gelatin derivatives; isinglass; other glue of animal origin (except casein glue) nesoi

3504

Peptones and derivatives; other proteins and derivatives, nesoi; hide powder, chromed or not

3505

Dextrins and other modified starches; glues based on starches, or on dextrins or other modified starches

380910

Finishing agents, dye carriers and other preparations (dressings, mordants etc.) used in the textile, paper, leather or like industries, nesoi

4101

Raw hides and skins of bovine or equine animals (fresh or preserved, but not tanned or further prepared), whether or not dehaired or split

4102

Raw skins of sheep or lambs, other than astrakhan, broadtail, caracul or similar skins (fresh or preserved, but not tanned or further prepared)

4103

Raw hides and skins nesoi (fresh or preserved, but not tanned or further prepared), whether or not dehaired or split

4301

Raw furskins nesoi (other than raw hides and skins usually used for leather), including heads, tails and pieces or cuttings suitable for furriers' use

5001

Silkworm cocoons suitable for reeling

5002

Raw silk (not thrown)

5003

Silk waste (including cocoons unsuitable for reeling, yarn waste and garnetted stock)

5101

Wool, not carded or combed

5102

Fine or coarse animal hair, not carded or combed

5103

Waste of wool or of fine or coarse animal hair, including yarn waste but excluding garnetted stock

5301

Flax, raw or processed but not spun; flax tow and waste (including yarn waste and garnetted stock)

5302

True hemp (cannabis sativa l.), raw or processed but not spun; tow and waste of true hemp (including yarn waste and garnetted stock)

14

Seafood

 

HS Code

Product Description

0301

Live fish

0302

Fish, fresh or chilled, excluding fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304

 

 

 

 

 

 

0303

Fish, frozen, excluding fish fillets and other fish meat of heading 0304

0304

Fish fillets and other fish meat (whether or not minced), fresh, chilled or frozen

0305

Fish, dried, salted or in brine; smoked fish, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of fish, fit for human consumption

 

0306

Crustaceans, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine; smoked crustaceans, whether in shell or not, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; crustaceans, in shell, cooked by steaming or by

boiling in water, whether or not chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine; flours, meals and pellets of crustaceans, fit for human consumption

 

0307

Molluscs, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine; smoked molluscs, whether in shell or

not, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of molluscs, fit for human consumption

 

0308

Aquatic invertebrates other than crustaceans and molluscs, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine;smoked

aquatic invertebrates other than crustaceans and molluscs, whether or not cooked before or during the smoking process; flours, meals and pellets of aquatic invertebrates other than crustaceans and molluscs, fit for human consumption

1604

Prepared or preserved fish; caviar and caviar substitutes prepared from fish eggs

1605

Crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates, prepared or preserved

 

 

3. Energy

15

Liquefied natural gas

 

HS Code

Product Description

271111

Liquefied natural gas

16

Crude oil

 

HS Code

Product Description

2709

Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

17

Refined products

 

HS Code

Product Description

271112

Liquefied propane

271113

Liquefied butane

27111990

Other unlisted liquefied petroleum gases and gaseous hydrocarbons

271311

Uncalcined petroleum coke

271312

Calcined petroleum coke

271012250

Naphtha (Excluding Motor Fuel), blend Stock not containing biodiesel

290511

Methanol

18

Coal

 

HS Code

Product Description

2701

Coal; briquettes, ovoids and similar solid fuels manufactured from coal

 

 

 

 

 

4. Services

19

Charges for use of IP

 

BMP6 Category a

BEA Line Number b

BEA Category

 

 

 

 

Charges for use of IP

29

Industrial processes

30

Computer software

31

Trademarks

32

Franchise fees

33

Audio-visual and related products

37

Other

20

Business travel and tourism

 

BMP6 Category

BEA Line Number

BEA Category

 

Travel (for all purposes including education)

13

Education-related travel

14

Other business travel and other personal travel

21

Financial services and insurance

 

BMP6 Category

BEA Line Number

BEA Category

Financial services

21

Financial services

 

Insurance services

16

Direct insurance and auxiliary insurance services

17

Reinsurance

22

Other services

 

BMP6 Category

BEA Line Number

BEA Category

Maintenance and repair

2

Maintenance and repair

Transport

3

Transport

 

 

Other business services

47

Research and development

48

Professional and management consulting

53

Technical, trade-related, and other business services

23

Cloud and related services

 

BMP6 Category

BEA Line Number

BEA Category

Information services

66

Data hosting, processing, and related services

 

Telecommunication, computer, and information services

43

Telecommunications services

44

Computer services

45

Information services

 

 

 

 

 

a “BMP6 Category” refers to the services listed in the IMF’s Balance of Payments Manual 6, Table 10.1 (“Overview of the Goods and Services Account”).

b “BEA Line Number” refers to the line number in U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis Table 2.3 (“U.S. Trade in Services, by Country of Affiliation and by Type of Service”), with one exception: line number 66, which corresponds to the BEA Category for “Data hosting, processing, and related services,” is found in U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis Table 4.1 (“U.S. Services Supplied to Foreign Persons by U.S. Multinational Enterprises through their Majority-Owned Foreign Affiliates, by Industry of Affiliate and by Country of Affiliate”).

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 7

 

BILATERAL EVALUATION AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION

 

Article 7.1: Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Arrangement

 

  1. To ensure prompt and effective implementation of this Agreement, the Parties establish the following Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Arrangement (the “Arrangement”).

 

  1. The purpose and mandate of the Arrangement are to effectively implement this Agreement, to resolve issues in the economic and trade relationship of the Parties in a fair, expeditious, and respectful manner, and to avoid the escalation of economic and trade disputes and their impact on other areas of the Parties’ relationship. The Parties recognize the importance of strengthened bilateral communications in this effort.

 

Article 7.2:   Arrangement Structure

 

  1. High-level Engagement. The Parties shall create the Trade Framework Group to discuss the implementation of this Agreement, which shall be led by the United States Trade Representative and a designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China. The Trade Framework Group shall discuss (a) the overall situation regarding implementation of this Agreement, (b) major problems with respect to implementation, and (c) arrangements for future work between the Parties. The Parties shall resume macroeconomic meetings to discuss overall economic issues, which shall be led by the United States Secretary of the Treasury and the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China. Both Parties shall make every effort to ensure that meetings of the Trade Framework Group and the macroeconomic meetings are efficient and oriented toward solving problems.

 

  1. Daily Work. The Arrangement shall include a Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office for each Party.

 

(a)                For the United States, the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office shall be headed by a designated Deputy United States Trade Representative. For China, the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office shall be headed by a designated Vice Minister under the designated Vice Premier.

 

(b)                Each Party shall designate an official (the “designated official”) to assist in the work of the Arrangement. By the date of entry into force of this Agreement, each

 

 

 

 

 

Party shall provide the contact information of its respective designated official. Each Party shall update such information as necessary.

 

(c)                The Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Offices shall (a) assess specific issues relating to implementation of this Agreement, (b) receive complaints regarding implementation submitted by either Party, and (c) attempt to resolve disputes through consultations. In carrying out its work, each Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office may consult with government agencies with relevant expertise.

 

Article 7.3: Requests for Information

 

A Party may request at any meeting, or prior to a meeting, information from the other Party regarding a matter relating to the implementation of this Agreement. The other Party shall provide a written response containing the requested information. In the event that a Party is not able to provide the requested information, the response shall contain a specific explanation of why the information cannot be provided within the time limit and the specific date when the information will be provided. Nothing in this provision shall obligate a Party to provide confidential information to the other Party.

 

Article 7.4: Dispute Resolution

 

  1. Appeal. Where one Party (the “Complaining Party”) believes that the other Party (the “Party Complained Against”) is not acting in accordance with this Agreement, the Complaining Party may submit an appeal (“Appeal”) to the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office of the Party Complained Against. An Appeal shall be in writing and shall contain sufficient information to allow the Party Complained Against to make a proper assessment of the matter. The Appeal may, but need not, include information that could identify any company at issue or business confidential information. The Appeal and any information and matters related to it are confidential and shall not be shared beyond the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office, absent the agreement of the Parties.

 

2.                   Scope of Appeal.

 

(a)                The dispute resolution process covers all matters that occur after the date of entry into force of this Agreement.

 

(b)                Any measure, including an action, of a Party taken prior to the date of entry into force of this Agreement, which is maintained or continues to have effect after that date, is also subject to the dispute resolution process. For an Appeal of such a

 

 

 

 

 

measure, the Complaining Party shall provide to the Party Complained Against an explanation of the continuing effect of the measure.

 

  1. Assessment. The Party Complained Against shall carry out and complete an assessment of the Appeal. The Party Complained Against shall consider the facts, nature, and seriousness of the issues presented by the Appeal. After the assessment is completed, the designated officials shall begin consultations.

 

  1. Dispute Procedures. Both Parties will attempt to resolve the Appeal in the most efficient manner using the following procedures:

 

(a)                If the Appeal cannot be resolved by the designated officials, the concerns may be raised to the designated Deputy United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Minister. If the Appeal is not resolved at the deputy or vice- ministerial level, the Complaining Party may present the issue to the United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China.

 

(b)               If the concerns of the Complaining Party are not resolved at a meeting between the United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China, the Parties shall engage in expedited consultations on the response to the damages or losses incurred by the Complaining Party. If the Parties reach consensus on a response, the response shall be implemented. If the Parties do not reach consensus on a response, the Complaining Party may resort to taking action based on facts provided during the consultations, including by suspending an obligation under this Agreement or by adopting a remedial

measure in a proportionate way that it considers appropriate with the purpose of preventing the escalation of the situation and maintaining the normal bilateral trade relationship. The Party Complained Against can initiate an urgent meeting between the United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China before the effective date of the action to be taken by the Complaining Party. If the Party Complained Against considers that the action by the Complaining Party pursuant to this subparagraph was taken in good faith, the Party Complained Against may not adopt a counter-response, or otherwise challenge such action. If the Party Complained Against considers that the action of the Complaining Party was taken in bad faith, the remedy is to withdraw from this Agreement by providing written notice of withdrawal to the Complaining Party.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subparagraph 4(a), if either the United States Trade Representative or the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China considers that an implementation issue is a matter of urgency, either one may raise the matter directly at a meeting between them without prior discussions at lower level meetings. If such a meeting cannot be timely scheduled for this purpose, the Complaining Party may resort to taking action as provided in subparagraph 4(b).

 

Article 7.5: Implementation Period

 

The Arrangement shall be in effect at the same time as this Agreement and shall remain in place as long as this Agreement is in effect. The Parties may assess the Arrangement and discuss any necessary adjustments to it at Trade Framework Group meetings.

 

Article 7.6: Miscellaneous

 

  1. The Parties affirm their existing rights and obligations with respect to each other under the WTO Agreement and other agreements to which the Parties are party.

 

  1. In the event that a natural disaster or other unforeseeable event outside the control of the Parties delays a Party from timely complying with its obligations under this Agreement, the Parties shall consult with each other.

 

 

 

 

 

Annex 7-A

 

WORKING PROCEDURES OF THE

BILATERAL EVALUATION AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION ARRANGEMENT

 

Schedule of Meetings

 

  1. Meetings of the Trade Framework Group shall be held every six months.

 

  1. The macroeconomic meetings shall be held regularly.

 

  1. The heads of each Party’s Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Office shall meet on a quarterly basis.

 

  1. The designated officials of each Party shall meet at least once a month.

 

  1. During the first two years after this Agreement enters into force, the frequency of meetings may be increased as appropriate. Meetings may be held in person or through any means available to the Parties.

 

Responses to Requests for Information

 

Pursuant to Article 7.3, a Party shall respond within 15 working days to any requests for information from the other Party.

 

Dispute Resolution Timeline

 

  1. Pursuant to Article 7.4.3, the Party Complained Against shall have 10 working days from the date of the receipt of the Appeal to carry out and complete an assessment of the Appeal.

 

  1. Pursuant to Article 7.4.4(a):

 

  1. The designated officials shall have 21 calendar days from the date of the receipt of the Appeal to reach a resolution.

 

  1. If the Appeal is not resolved by the designated officials, the designated Deputy United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Minister shall have 45 calendar days from the date of the receipt of the Appeal to reach a resolution.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. If the Appeal is not resolved at the deputy or vice-ministerial level and the Complaining Party presents the issue to the United States Trade Representative and the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China, these officials shall hold a meeting within 30 calendar days from the date the Complaining Party requests such a meeting.

 

  1. Pursuant to Article 7.4.5, if either the United States Trade Representative or the designated Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China requests to meet on a matter of urgency, a meeting shall be scheduled within 30 calendar days from the date of receipt of that request.

 

  1. The Parties may agree, in writing, to extend the time periods set forth in this Annex.

 

  1. The calculation of working days in this Annex is based on the official calendar of the government of the Party Complained Against.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 8 FINAL PROVISIONS

 

Article 8.1: Annexes, Appendices, and Footnotes

 

The annexes, appendices, and footnotes to this Agreement constitute an integral part of this Agreement.

 

Article 8.2: Amendments

 

  1. The Parties may agree, in writing, to amend this Agreement.

 

  1. An amendment shall enter into force 60 days after the date on which the Parties exchange written notifications of the approval of the amendment in accordance with their respective applicable domestic procedures, or such other date as the Parties may decide.

 

Article 8.3: Entry into Force and Termination

 

  1. This Agreement shall enter into force within 30 days of signature by both Parties or as of the date on which the Parties have notified each other in writing of the completion of their respective applicable domestic procedures, whichever is sooner.

 

  1. Either Party may terminate this Agreement by providing written notice of termination to the other Party. The termination shall take effect 60 days after the date on which a Party has provided that written notice to the other Party, or on such other date as the Parties may decide.

 

Article 8.4: Further Negotiations

 

The Parties will agree upon the timing of further negotiations.

 

Article 8.5: Notice and Comment on Implementing Measures

 

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, each Party shall provide no less than 45 days for public comment on all proposed measures implementing this Agreement. Each Party

 

 

 

 

 

shall consider concerns raised by the other Party in any final measure or amendment intended to implement this Agreement.

 

Article 8.6: Authentic Texts

 

The English and Chinese versions of this Agreement are equally authentic.

 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Agreement.

 

DONE in duplicate at

 

Washington, District of Columbia, on January 15, 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE                   FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA                         PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

 

 

 

 

 


January 15, 2020

 

 

Ambassador Gregg Doud Chief Agricultural Negotiator

Office of the U.S. Trade Representative 600 17th Street, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20250 Dear Ambassador Doud,

I have the honor to confirm the following agreement reached between representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China ("China") and representatives of the Government of the United States of America ("United States"):                                                       ·

 

China shall not require certification for low risk food products from the United States, including all U.S. products considered by the United States to be highly processed, shelf­ stable food products.

 

Additionally, China shall participate in the electronic working group established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems on food fraud and food integrity.

 

I have the honor to propose that this letter and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares this agreement shall constitute an agreement between our two governments, which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.                                                                                                       ·

 

Vice MiniNterl-! i\

 

January 15, 2020

 

Vice Minister Han Jun

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Aff irs 11 Nongzhanguan Nanli

Beijing 100125

People's Republic of China Dear Vice Minister Han,

I am pleased to acknowledge your letter of January 15, 2020, which reads as follows:

 

I have the honor to confirm the following agreement reached between representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China ("China") and representatives of the Government of the United States of America ("United States"):

 

China shall not require certification for low risk food products from the United States, including all U.S. products considered by the United States to be highly processed, shelf-stable food products.

 

Additionally, China shall participate in the electronic working group established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Ce11ification Systems on food fraud and food integrity.

 

I have the honor to propose that this letter and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares this agreement shall constitute an agreement between om two governments which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.

 

I have the further honor to confirm that my Government shares this agreement and that your letter and this letter in reply shall constitute an agreement between our governments, which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.

 

 

 

Sincerely,

 

 


v.     "·'--

 

Arribassa'dc5t Gregg Doud Chief Agricultural, Negotiator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


January 15, 2020

 

 

Ambassador Gregg Doud Chief Agricultural Negotiator

Office of the U.S. Trade Representative 600 17th Street, N.W.

Washington, D.C. 20250 Dear Ambassador Doud,

I have the honor to confirm the following agreement reached between representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China ("China") and representatives of the Government of t_he United States of America ("United States"):

 

Based on its previously-concluded assessment of the U.S. aquatic-product regulatory system, China shall, upon entry into force of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America, dated January 15, 2020 (the "Trade Agreement"), approve the importation into China from the United States of the aquatic species listed in Attachment 1 of this letter.

 

China shall, within 5 working days of the date of entry into force of the Trade Agreement, include the 23 U.S. feed additives, premixes, and compound feed products listed in Attachment 2 of this letter on China's list of Traditionally Traded Products and allow imports into China from the United States of those feed additives, premixes, and compound feed products.

 

I have the honor to propose that this letter and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares this agreement shall constitute an agreement between our two governments, which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Trade Agreement, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.

:i: JHj(,

 

 

 

January 15, 2020

 

Vice Minister Han Jun

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs 11 Nongzhanguan Nanli

Beijing 100125

People's Republic of China Dear Vice Minister Han,

I am pleased to acknowledge your letter of January 15, 2020, which reads as follows:

 

I have the honor to confirm the following agreement reached between representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China ("China") and representatives of the Government of the United States of America ("United States"):

 

Based on its previously-concluded assessment of the U.S. aquatic-product regulatory system, China shall, upon entry into force of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United States of America, dated January 15, 2020 (the "Trade Agreement"), approve the importation into China from the United States of the

  • aquatic species listed in Attachment 1 of this letter.

 

China shall, within 5 working days of the date of entry into force of the Trade Agreement, include the 23 U.S. feed additives, premixes, and compound feed products listed in Attachment 2 of this letter on China's list of Traditionally Tradeq Products and allow imports into China from the United States of those feed additives, premixes, and compound feed products.

 

I have the honor to propose that this letter and your letter in reply confirming that your Government shares this agreement shall constitute an agreement between our two governments, which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Trade Agreement, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.

 

I have the further honor to confirm that my Government shares this agreement and that your letter and this letter in reply shall constitute an agreement between our governments, which shall be subject to the provisions of the Bilateral Evaluation and Dispute Resolution Chapter of the Economic and Trade Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Govenunent of the People's Republic of China, dated January 15, 2020, and shall enter into force on the date of entry into force of that agreement.

 

 

ISinfc,e.rel:y_,


-

Gregg Doud     '··,··           .

 

Chief Agricultural Negotiator

 

 

 

 

Attachment 1: U.S. Aquatic Species List

 

 

 


Aquatic Species Antarctic Krill Chinook/King Salmon

Chum Salmon Coho Salmon Pink Salmon Sockeye Salmon Freshwater Drum

Bowfin Roe White Shrimp

Western White Shrimp Southern White Shrimp Alaska Skate, Skate wings Conch Meats

Conch Meats Conch Meats Harlequin Rockfish

Yellow Tail Rockfish Widow Rockfish Shortraker Rockfish Rougheye Rockfish Black Rockfish Redbanded Rockfish Redstripe Rockfish American Shad Pollock (oil)

Pollock (oil) Pacific whiting (oil)


 

Scientific Name Euphausia superba Oncorhynchustshawytscha Oncorhynchus keta Oncorhynchus kisutch Oncorhynchusgorbuscha Oncorhynchus nerka Aplodinotus grunn iens

Amia calva Litopenaeus setiferus

Litopenaeus occidentalis Litopenaeus sclunitti Bathyraja pramifera Busycon canaliculatum Busycoptus canaliculatus Busycon carica

Sebastes variegatus Sebastes flavidus Sebastes entomelas Sebastes borealis Sebastes aleutianus Sebastes melanops Sebastes babcocki Sebastes proriger Alosa sapidissima Gadus chalcogrammus

Theragra chalcogramma Merluccius productus


 

Product Name Antarctic Krill Oil Fish Oil

Fish Oil Fish Oil Fish Oil Fish Oil

Frozen Freshwater Drum Fish Frozen Bowfin Roe

Frozen Shrimp

Frozen Shrimp Frozen Shrimp

Alaska Skate, Skate wings Conch Meats

Conch Meats Conch Meats Frozen fillet Frozen fillet Frozen fillet Frozen fillet Frozen fillet Frozen fillet

Frozen fillet Frozen fillet Frozen/chilled Fish Oil

Fish Oil Fish Oil

 

 


Attachment 2: Traditionally Traded Products

 

ff%

mrt%

F ;lJIn             1s$

Establishment Name

 

-     IE ACG F rl'lif-fll 0 -§'J

ACG Products Ltd., USA

 

 

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Alltech Inc., USA

IE     0-§'J

Alltech Inc., USA

 

 

IE m    t-H0-§'J

American Biosystems, Inc., USA

IE s 0-§'J

Balchem Corporation, USA

 

IE Biozyme 0-§'J

BioZyme Incorporated

 

 

 

IE Desert King IEµiFf-f µ 0-§'J

Desert King International Inc., USA

IEtlii:il[jffiftl!.      rnJf-f 11 0-§'J

Frondita Biogroup, Inc., USA

IEIEµiFJJM-H -§'J

I nternational Ingredient Corporation

IEIEµiF JJl'!] 4-0 -§'J

International Ing red ie nt Corporation

 

IEIEµff-JJU40 -§'J

Internatio nal Ingredient Corporation

 

IEIEµiFJJl'!]-ll 0 -§'J

I nternational Ingred ie nt Corpo ration

F£1s

Product Name

tf./J uJ-'.=E

Feed Bond

 

 

mJJ Optimase iJt?;ll;t; Sow Advantage

 

Ml.7rra

Super Dairy, Combo

].fir

NitroShure

 

x: tlli

AMAFERM

 

 

 

3!'.-30

DK

sarsaponin- 30

 

@:/JU

Super DFM Plus

 

 

fri-'IL

Gold Star Milk

.li£3s'. Five Star Booster

 

g    :ff 1i£:WHi}

F £ ffl:1is

Usage of Product

 

ti5J Uj.}:;t    :!JctflJ

Anti-caking Agent

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All animal

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Feed Additive Urea

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Trace Mineral Premix for Sow tf.iJ 4tJ :/JutiLl Feed Additive

 

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Feed Additive Urea (Dairy cows)

Enzyme Feed grade

:ffmq1

(All species o r categories of animals)

'i:a.ll4 1JutiiJ

Feed Additive

* * l] j\\'

(Poultry  and Sw ine)

rtt-g-ruti5J*4 :/Ju t u

Mixed Feed Additive

 

 

 

Eitf./Jtll-

Protein feed (Piglet and Calf)

:!1J i5Jf 4

Energy Feed (Pig lets)

 

 

s miti5Jt4

mt:¥4

Raw Material

 

7.k-g-MJ-E\    tli3tu,

Hydrated Sodium Calcium

Alumino silicate

Pl<

Urea

ni mitf./J Uj. JJUtiiJ

Natural Minerals

 

 

M-ffl:

Yeast

 

Pl<

Urea

 

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*lltl1i.)

a-Amylase (by Aspergillus Oryzae)

x P.-!t R191 nn r_lj

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Yucca (Yucca Schidigera) Extract

i/& !lo/J

Feed Add it ives Mixture

Live Microorganisms

:!Oft)m}    wg

Dried Milk and Dried Cheese If    £/ljljF £

Sugar Foods By- Product (Carbohydra tes)

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No.

Register

 

Number

I

 

 

2

 

,.,

 

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4

 

 

5

 

 

6

 

 

 

7

 

 

8

 

 

 

9

 

 

10

 

 

I I

 

Nutri-Gold

 

 

ti5] ')}

Cheese Plus Cheese

Protein Feed ( Livestock,

aquac ulture and pet)

::i:ti5Jf 4· E nergy Feed (Swine and calf)

 

 

 

Dried Milk Powder

 

12

 

-=f9JJ  F 1:i"'ii

 

 

Dried Cheese

 

 

Product

 

1 3

 

illlilll ffimll;J.i ifl International Ing red ie nt Corporation

J5tfiJ iS Milk Chocolate Product

t:it'µijr4

Energy Feed (Swine and calf)

Pj 3l jJ ll!PflJJ53l jJ

L:J::mrst fiJtl} Chocolate Candy & Dried Chocolate

Milk

14

 

0000 ;[\m!t40 ifJ

International Ingredient Corporation

-'fLm'.'i'.

CW- I I

iis/JJHfiJ;j'-'i-

Protein Feed (Piglet, pet and Aquaculture)

PNJiUU

Whey and by-

product, Lactose and Whey Protein

15

 

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International Ingredie nt Corporation

tfi];J-)}

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HE

Protein Feed (Piglet,

pet and Aquaculture)

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Dried Cheese and Soy Flour

16

 

00 00 $m!t40ifJ Intei-national Ingredien t Corporation

.'i'.'i:Yi

Carbo-Pal

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Feed Additive

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f'-'Jii

cereal food and

sugar foods by- products

17

 

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Internatio nal Ingredient Corporation

g yf

Nutri-P al

ii B'µlj;jGj.

Protein feed (Swine)

WHS M-B;I:@

Milk Product and

Brewers Dried Yeast

18

 

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International Ingredient

Corporation

B * A GroBiotic A

'µljr4r JJ□flu

Feed Additive

ffii-B;l:@!i

Yeast

19

 

00JtIY:l I.\lkif   0 ifJ

Kemin Industries, Inc., USA

1fi!l:   nlr$ 27

;J-)}tiU

KemTRACE

Zinc 27 Dry

¥ffiB"  tiiJt4    JJ□titl p;j®r$

Feed Additives Mixture Zinc Propionate (Swine,

Ruminent, Poultry)

r;i®4l

Zinc Propionate

20

 

tL:Ji.W:r4t        iiiifl

Lallemand Specialties, Inc., USA

{ffi ;j¥

Bactocel

tiiJr4- JmfiU Feed Additive (Swine, Poultry,

Aquaculture)

-'fL®lt f* ii Pediococcus acidilactici

21

 

005t1frtMMHJ.i ifl 5t1Jr

tMtiiJr 4 JJ□trn

Lesaffre Feed Additives, a

division of Lesaffre Yeast Corporation, USA

J¥ti'ilfi 3000·

Se lyeast3000

tfiJr 4   JJ□trn

Feed Additive

MHJ.@

Selenium Yeast

22

 

11H'F!WJ g"   if  0ifJ

tilJr4im1JDtiUW Mosaic Global Sales, LLC Mosaic Feed Ingredien ts, a Division of Mosaic Corp Nutrition, LLC

fi (fi

= i .iJ )

Biofos

lii!WJ J9'!'µijr4 110 ti U

Natural Mineral

fi     t iJ Monocalcium Phosphate

23

 

0011£'i: fi1.)!fo/.fg     00 ;j;if

0ifJ

Zinpro Animal Nutrition

International Inc, USA

ft;t    il

100 Availa- Zn JOO

1V !W,JtiiJf.;J.  )J□titl

Mine ral Feed Additive

ililii!HHi B-o0/ Zinc Amino Acid Complex

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